|SYMPOSIUM: Insect Behavioral Ecology, 10:10 – 12:00 AM, Mon., August 7
|Phylogenetics as a tool for discovering patterns among higher level taxa - the evolution of bioluminescence in the non-firefly cantheroids. Marc Branham, Dept. of Entomology, Museum of Biological Diversity, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (no abstract provided)
|Insect surveys in the Southeast: investigating relictual entomofaunas. Paul Skelly and Peter Kovaric, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL (no abstract provided)
|Identification and information storage and retrieval: old challenges with new solutions. Mike Sharkey, Dept. of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (no abstract provided)
|Trapping around the tropics: Using dung beetles to assess biodiversity and habitat integrity on a shrinking planet. Bruce Gill, Centre for Plant Quarantine Pests, Ottawa, Ontario Canada (no abstract provided)
|What do firefliers need to know about taxonomic scale apropos of their species problems? Jim Lloyd, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (no abstract provided)
|A history of pest mole crickets in the Southeast. J. H. Frank, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Scapteriscusmole crickets, from southern South America, have now been in the Southeast for 100 years. The distributions of all three species continue to increase. What have entomologists learned about them, what has the public learned about them, and why is there still a problem with them?
|Determination of carbohydrate sources of Ormia depleta through gas chromato-graphic analysis of crop contents. C. Welch, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Adult Ormia depleta (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tachinidae), a biological control agent for control of Scapteriscus spp. mole crickets, were captured, dissected, and their crop contents analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the sugar composition. This was done in an effort to determine the source of carbohydrates upon which these flies were feeding in the wild so that these sources could be used to encourage populations in areas where more mole cricket control is needed. Analysis showed, by the presence of turanose and melezitose, that all O. depleta tested fed heavily, if not exclusively, on Homopteran honeydew as opposed to plant nectar sources. It is therefore unlikely that attempts to augment populations by adding plant nectar sources would be successful. Longevity tests were performed to determine the nutritional significance of melezitose in the diet of O. depleta.
|Influences on sterile medfly recovery in preventative release program areas. D. Dean, Fruit Fly Lab, DPI, Palmetto, FL, & T. Holler, USDA APHIS, Gainesville, FL
|Efforts to monitor the density and distribution of sterile medflies under preventative release areas indicate that fewer flies were recovered from Miami than the Tampa release area. Simultaneous ground releases were made in each preventative release area for a comparison to confirm or eliminate the influence of the aerial release delivery system. Results indicate that environmental ground factors contribute significantly to the differences observed in the two release areas.
|Analysis of factors affecting establishment of Ceratogramma etiennei (Trichogrammatidae) as biocontrol of Diaprepes abbreviatus in South Florida. D. Amalin, J. E. Peña, and R. E. Duncan, Tropical Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Homestead, FL
|The exotic parasitoid Ceratogramma etiennei (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) became established in ornamental fields in South Florida in 1999. Parasitism per egg mass fluctuated between 35 and 100%. Tests to determine acceptance of different ages of Diaprepes weevil eggs by C. etiennei were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. In general percent parasitism decreased as the eggs matured. C. etiennei parasitized more eggs when these were deposited on the lower and middle stratum of Conocarpus erectus and Citrus aurantifolia, than when eggs were laid on the upper canopy of the trees. The response from C. etiennei to different egg densities laid on different host plants was evaluated in the greenhouse.
|Initial attempts at biological control of giant salvinia, Salvinia molesta, in Texas & Louisiana. P. W. Tipping, USDA-ARS, Invasive Plant Research Laboratory, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
|Giant salvinia, Salvinia molesta, is now established in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is naturalized in Florida were it survives on another naturalized weed, common salvinia, Salvinia minima Baker. This weevil has successfully controlled giant salvinia in more than 13 countries over 3 continents. In order to eliminate the risk of importing C. salviniae from Australia, we decided to first try releasing the Florida population of C. salviniae in Texas and Louisiana starting in June, 1999. Although adults have been recovered, no significant reductions in weed biomass have occurred.
|The Fergusobia/Fergusonina gall-forming complex for biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida. R. M. Giblin-Davis, B. Center, J. Makinson, M. Purcell, S. Scheffer, W. K.Thomas, G. Taylor, K. Morris, J. Goolsby, and T. Center. Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
|Fergusobianematodes and Fergusonina flies are mutualists that cause galls on myrtaceous plant buds and young leaves. Members of the gall complex were collected from 29 different host species from North Queensland to South Australia. Sequence comparisons within flies (mtDNA) and nematodes (rRNA) showed a high degree of host specificity. On Melaleuca quinquenervia, which is an invasive weed in the Florida Everglades, the gall complex was studied in detail for possible use as an introductive biocontrol agent.
|Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae), a potential biocontrol agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum virarum, in the USA. J. Medal, J. Cuda, D. Gandolfo, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a prickly shrub native to South America. Initially reported in Florida in the mid 1980s, it has spread rapidly, infesting more than one half million acres in the USA. . Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae) has been identified as a potential biocontrol agent. Host-specificity tests indicated a narrow host range. Field experiments and surveys conducted in South America corroborate the specificity of this biocontrol agent.
|The Brazilian pepper seed feeder Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae): Florida distribution and impact. G. S. Wheeler, USDA-ARS Invasive Plants Research Lab, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
|A torymid wasp, Megastigmus transvaalensis, originally reared from Rhus spp. in South Africa was recovered from drupes of the terrestrial weed Schinus terebinthifolius in Florida. Collections of S. terebinthifolius drupes indicated that the wasp was present at all 18 sites surveyed. Wasps damaged about 30% and 75% of the drupes during the winter and spring flowering, respectively. Utilization of alternate hosts has not been detected despite rearing of drupes from native anacard species.
|Movement of Frankliniella species and Orius insidiosus in field pepper. J. Stavisky, S. Ramachandran, J. Funderburk, and S. Olson. North Florida Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Quincy, FL
|Local movement of thrips between pepper flowers was studied to examine how population attributes of the predator Orius insidiosus allow regulation of rapidly moving populations of prey. Greenhouse-grown plants were moved into field plots. Thrips population estimates were made by sampling flowers 1,4, and 7 days following placement of greenhouse plants. Frankliniella tritici and F. bipinosa moved more rapidly to the greenhouse plants than F. occidentalis and males of each species moved more rapidly than the females. O. insidiosus also moved very rapidly to the greenhouse plants.
|A new trap for monitoring selected species of Heteroptera. R. F. Mizell, III. North Florida Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Monticello, FL
|A new trap for detection and monitoring of selected Pentatomidae, Coreidae and Reduviidae will be presented. The trap provides a supernumerary visual cue and exploits the aggregation behavior of this important pest group. A pheromone is available for Euschistus spp. and successful monitoring of the population dynamics of several species will be discussed.
|Parasitoids of Apatelodes sp., a new defoliating lepidopterous pest of plantain in the south region basin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Oscar Domínguez, Raúl Ramírez, Eleodoro Inciarte, Postgrado Facultad de Agronomia, La Universidad del Zulia. Maracaibo, Venezuela (In Spanish)
discovered for the first time defoliating plantain in 1998 in the south
region basin of the lake of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Populations of this pest
and their parasitoids were monitored in twenty plantain groves over a six-year
period (1994-2000). Three taxa of parasitoids emerged from lepidopterous
larvae and pupae colleted from the plantain plants. One species (not determined)
of Calocarcelia spp. was recovered from Apatelodes spp. larvae-pupae.
A Sacorphagid (not determined) parasitized larvae-pupae. Likewise, a Chalcid,
pandora (Crawford) was the most common parasitoid that emerged from
Apatelodes sp. fue descubierto por primera vez defoliando plátano en 1998, en la región del Sur del Lago de Maracaibo. Poblaciones de esta plaga y sus parasitoides fueron monitoreados en veinte plantaciones, en un período de seis años (1994-2000). Tres taxas de parasitoides emergieron de larvas y pupas colectadas de plantas de plátano. Una especie no determinada de Calocarcelia sp. fue recuperada de larva-pupa de Apatelodes sp. Una especie de la familia Sarcophagidae no determinada parasitó larva-pupa de esta plaga. Adicionalmente, la especie Brachymeriapandora (Crawfor) fue el parasitoide más frecuentemente emergido de pupas de Apatelodes sp.
|History of mosquito-borne diseases in Florida. D. Carlson, Indian River Mosquito Control District, Vero Beach, FL
|In Florida since the late 1950's, encephalitis has been the primary mosquito-transmitted pathogen of consequence. In fact, mosquito problems during the second half of the 20th Century have been primarily of a nuisance nature. Historically, however, other diseases vectored by mosquitoes have plagued the State including malaria, yellow fever and dengue. Outbreaks of these diseases in years past have had a significant effect on Florida’s development.
|St. Louis encephalitis in Florida. D. Shroyer, Indian River Mosquito Control Dist., Vero Beach, FL
|While sporadically occurring throughout much of continental USA, St. Louis encephalitis virus is clearly endemic in central and south Florida. Furthermore, SLE in Florida has distinctive features that reflect its subtropical distribution. Vector mosquito and vertebrate host associations in Florida dramatically alter the natural history of SLE virus, relative to that seen in most of North America. This has important implications for the surveillance and control of SLE in Florida.
|West Nile Virus in North America. W. Tabachnick, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, IFAS, University of Florida, Vero Beach, FL
|The West Nile virus epidemic in New York City in 1999 was an incursion of a dangerous foreign virus into the U. S. The events surrounding this epidemic provide critical information for assessing and mitigating the risk to Florida from similar outbreaks of this and other arthropod-borne pathogens.
|Arbovirus surveillance in Florida. L. Stark, Florida Dept. of Health & Rehabilitative Services, Tampa, FL
|Florida has had a successful proactive Arbovirus Surveillance system for many years. This program is a collaborative effort of diverse agencies and bureaus. Sera from Sentinel Chicken Flocks statewide are submitted to the Tampa Branch Laboratory, Florida DOH Bureau of Laboratories. The HAI test and other assays for antibody to Flaviviruses (SLE, WN) and Alphaviruses (EEE) are performed weekly. Because of this program, Florida is well prepared for the introduction of new arboviruses.
|Models for mosquito-borne diseases: St. Louis encephalitis in Florida. C. Lord, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory,
|St. Louis Encephalitis transmission varies dramatically from year to year in Florida. Models can be used to examine the factors affecting this variation, such as mosquito and bird population dynamics. These models can also be used to provide insights into the possible behavior of exotic viruses if introduced to Florida.
|Mosquitoes and water management issues in Florida. G. O’Meara, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, IFAS, University of Florida, Vero Beach, FL
|In recent years, the expansion of large regional sewage treatment facilities has greatly reduced the number of small on-site sewage treatment plants that often generated serious mosquito problems. However, new mosquito infestations have been produced by the widespread implementation of various types of storm water retention and wastewater disposal systems.
|Florida mosquito control and response to disease outbreaks. A. Curtis, Indian River Mosquito Control District, Vero Beach, FL
|Historically, Florida and its Mosquito Control Districts have faced malaria, yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis and Eastern Equine Encephalitis epidemics. Control responses to these mosquito borne diseases have included fumigation of ships and quarantine of passengers before 1900 during yellow fever and dengue epidemics, the draining of swamps for malaria control and massive aerial adulticiding efforts for suppression of St. Louis Encephalitis epidemics.
|Florida preparedness in the event of a West Nile outbreak. R. Rutledge, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, IFAS, University of Florida, Vero Beach, FL
|The events that occurred during the West Nile virus epidemic in New York City in 1999 prompted mosquito control agencies, public health officials, and scientists in the state of Florida to consider the potential for an outbreak of the virus in the region. Planning for a response to such an event is ongoing. Specific discussions and preparations will be presented.
|Comparison of three bait formulations for toxicity against German cockroach nymphs and secondary kill of adult males. D. D. Branscome and P. G. Koehler. Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Three toxic bait formulations were fed to 1st and 2nd instar German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) nymphs to determine LT50s. Secondary kill of adults was also assessed. Nymphal LT50s for Maxforce® (fipronil), Pre-Empt® (imidacloprid) and Siege® (hydramethylnon) were 8.4, 10.0, and 49.0 h respectively. Morality of adult males at 7 d was significantly higher for adults fed either the fipronil (99%) or imidacloprid (95%) killed nymphs compared to adults fed control (12%) or hydramethylnon (61%) killed nymphs.
|Canine termite detection. S. E. Brooks. Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|A German Shepherd dog was trained, using US Customs method of scent association through retrieve, to locate Reticulitermes flavipes termites in simulated bait stations. The dog's ability to find R. flavipes and his false indication rate were evaluated, as well as his ability to differentiate between R. flavipes, R. virginicus, Coptotermes formosanus, and Incisitermes snyderi.
|Effect of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, and squash silverleaf disorder on zucchini plant growth. J. Chen, H. J. McAuslane, R. B. Carle, and S. E. Webb. Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Zucchini seedlings at the two-leaf stage were infested for three days with several levels of adult silverleaf whiteflies in two greenhouse experiments. The effects of immature whitefly feeding and expression of silverleaf disorder on growth of two zucchini breeding lines, one resistant and one susceptible to silverleaf disorder, were studied. The plant growth characteristics measured indicated that the progeny of as few as sixty pairs of whiteflies significantly stunted zucchini seedling growth.
|The arboreal microhabitat of pupation sites for the winter firefly Pyractomena borealis (Randall) and its adaptive significance (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). E. Gentry, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Comparisons of utilized verses available trees indicated pupation sites were not randomly distributed. Microhabitat features including temperature, roughness, aspect and height were measured and proved significant parameters of pupation sites. Temperature comparisons indicated that site selection might enable the extremes of ambient temperature to be moderated in the microhabitat. Selection of pupation site may have significance on firefly life history and evolution.
|Shade-seeking behavior in Panonychus citri (McGregor) and Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and resulting oviposition patterns. R. Villanueva and C. C. Childers. Citrus Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL
|Shade seeking behavior of Panonychus citri (McGregor) and Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) on the adaxial surface of citrus leaves are reported. Female P. citri were 3.2 times more abundant in shaded areas than areas exposed to direct sunlight in ‘Valencia’ trees in the field between 11:30 AM and 12:30 PM. Light intensity averaged 494 lumens in shade and 903 in direct sunlight. This behavior affected selection of oviposition sites during these times of the day. Panonychus citri and E. banksi oviposited 36 times and 52 times more eggs, respectively, in shaded areas than in direct sunlight areas on grapefruit arenas between 9:30 AM and 2:00 PM.
|Feeding response of Reticulitermes flavipes to four fungi. L. Jacobs, P. G. Koehler, J. Kimbrough, and G. Benny. Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Feeding response of R. flavipes to four soil borne fungi isolated from termite monitoring devices was evaluated. Micro colonies of R. flavipes were given a choice of feeding on sterile 15mm cellulose disks saturated with PDA broth or disks saturated with PDA broth and inoculated with fungal isolates. Feeding behavior was evaluated by measuring the surface area of the disks consumed. Measurements were made with image analysis software. Results indicate that R. flavipes will feed preferentially on cellulose inoculated with certain fungi and are deterred from feeding by certain other species.
|The influence of construction techniques on subterranean termite infestations in Northeast Florida. D. L. Richman and P. G. Koehler, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|In 1996, St. John’s County, in Northeastern Florida, revised its Building Code to include modifications which sought to minimize available subterranean termite food supply, eliminate hidden termite access into structures, and increase the effectiveness of the chemically treated soil barrier. To evaluate these changes, approximately 13,000 surveys were mailed to homeowners in St. John’s County and, for comparison, the adjacent counties of Flagler and Duval. Information regarding the structural characteristics and termite treatment histories of the houses will be graphically represented using a geographical information system and Arc View software.
|External morphology and off-host survival of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis. C. Scherer and P. Koehler, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Due to insecticide resistance, Pediculosis has become a major problem for school officials in almost every school across the US. Examination of the external morphology using SEM and light microscopy and subsequent laboratory testing reveal that head lice can survive only very short periods of time off host. Results of adult survival experiments as well as successful egg hatch rates at three different temperatures will be discussed.
|Life history parameters for the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at constant temperatures. M. A. Toapanta, D. J. Schuster, P. A. Stansly, and J. E. Eger, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii, is a major pest of peppers in the southern United States. We reared A. eugenii from egg through adult in chambers at 7 temperatures ranging from 15 to 33o C and observed linear relationships of development time with temperature for all pre-imaginal lifestages. Measurements of the head capsule of larval A. eugenii demonstrated that the insect has three well-defined instars at 27o C., 60% R.H. and 14:10 L:D cycles.
|Possible mechanisms involved in lettuce resistance to the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata. J. Huang, H. J. McAuslane, and G. S. Nuessly. Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Two lettuce cultivars were evaluated for resistance to adult Diabrotica balteata. 'Valmaine' was strongly resistant to beetle feeding when intact or excised leaves, but not leaf discs, were presented in binary tests with susceptible 'Tall Guzmaine'. Resistance was noted in 'Valmaine' when intact leaves, but not excised leaves, were presented in no-choice tests. Localized induced resistance to feeding was found in 'Valmaine' but not in 'Tall Guzmaine'. The two cultivars differed in latex physical properties.
|SYMPOSIUM: Protected Crop Entomology, 2:30 – 5:00 PM,Tues., August 8
|Vegetable production in the greenhouse: a world-wide growth phenomenon & an opportunity for research & graduate education. D. Cantliffe & Elio Jovicich, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
produces $1.78 billion from fresh market vegetables cultivated on 160,000
ha of open field land. Unfortunately, like other highly coastal urbanized
lands in the world, Florida has been facing a displacement and loss of
the warmest and most productive lands for winter vegetable production.
With the use of protected structures, crop yield per unit area can be increased
and fruit quality improved. In 1997, a Florida and Israeli Protected Agriculture
Project was initiated to take better advantage of
land distal from the urbanized coastline. High value crops such cluster tomatoes, colored peppers, Bet alpha cucumbers, Galia melons and strawberries are successfully grown in hydroponic systems with biological control practices that minimize the use of pesticides. The project presents graduate student opportunities for research work in vegetable production and biocontrol on protected agriculture at the University of Florida.
|Opportunities for greenhouse vegetable production in Florida. G. Hochmuth and R. Hochmuth, North Florida Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Quincy, FL
|Florida has opportunities and challenges for greenhouse vegetable production, and anyone contemplating growing vegetables in greenhouses in Florida will need to do their homework. Florida has a very mild climate, good for greenhouse culture of crops, but also good for development of insects and diseases that plague greenhouse crops. There is a paucity of control systems worked out for greenhouse vegetable crops, although work is promising in this area. The costs of production are very high and the risk is high, just like for any vegetable crop. The produce from greenhouses needs to come in consistent amounts and in very high quality. The proximity of Florida to many large market areas is a plus for our state for these high quality crops. Although there are challenges to successful greenhouse vegetable production in Florida, there are many growers who have made a success out of this production. Florida is one of the leading states in the country for production of greenhouse vegetables. We have about 70 acres of greenhouse vegetables in this state. Most of the larger growers are located below the I-4 line, and a significant number of smaller growers are in the northern part of the state. The leading crops are tomato, pepper, cucumber, and lettuce. The secret to success is do your homework, know your marketing options, work very hard, and pay attention to detail. The University of Florida-IFAS has active research and extension programs for the greenhouse vegetable industry, and has a very comprehensive set of publications dealing with this topic.
|Production and pest problems encountered by a Florida greenhouse vegetable grower. E. Belibasis, Beli Farms, Wellborn, FL
|Beli Farms grows, packs, and ships cluster tomatoes from two acres of greenhouses. We comply with most organic certification standards through practices like computerized environmental control equipment, use of insect screens, biological control agents, soaps, and cultural practices. Our challenge is to increase yields while reducing costs per unit. We must address: 1) Labor management; 2) Low light levels during the winter; 3) Excess heat during spring and summer production; 4) Botrytis / high humidity
|Management of greenhouse vegetable pests. P. Stansly, Southwest Florida Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Immokalee, FL
|The confined environment of the greenhouse presents some special conditions for vegetable pest management, at once favorable to biological control and development of insecticide resistance. Furthermore, increasing concerns about residues have created demand for pesticide-free produce. On the other hand, chemical control requires less expertise and the high costs and expectations of an exigent market require a blemish-free product. The range of strategies used to meet these challenges will be the subject of this talk.
|Global expansion of greenhouse ornamentals and associated advances in pest management. K. Bolckmans, Koppert Biological Systems, Berkel en Rodenrijs, The Netherlands
|(no abstract provided)
|Biological control systems for greenhouse ornamentals in Florida. C. Mannion, Tropical Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Homestead, FL
|Knowledge about Florida’s protected crops is essential to providing effective pest management support, particularly implementation of systems based on new biological control and complimentary biorational options. Survey data are available for the major ornamental crops in Florida and an economic study of our environmental horticulture industry was recently published. In 1997, Florida’s nursery and greenhouse sales were valued at $1.46 billion. The importance of this industry warrants developing and implementing the best possible pest management systems.
|Pest management in ornamentals: a grower’s perspective. N. Rechcigl, Yoder Bros., Parrish, FL
|Pest management has always been and will continue to be a challenge for the nursery and greenhouse industry. Ornamental producers are faced with the task of producing a high quality, pest-free crop, within economical means, without endangering the environment and the worker’s safety. Confronted with shifts in pest pressure, limited chemical application allowances and the constant threat of new pest and crop problems, coupled with the potential loss of more highly effective broad-spectrum chemicals from the market, today’s producer must be willing to improve their level of sophistication with regard to pest management strategies in order to stay competitive in tomorrow’s market.
|Research on greenhouse ornamental pest management. L. Osborne, Mid-Florida Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Apopka, FL
|Biological control has been an option for protected culture in northern greenhouse vegetable crops for many years. However, integrating biological control agents into pest management systems for ornamental plants has not received the same level of success or interest. We are entering a new era of crop protection in which natural enemies are showing promise for use in a wide range of integrated pest management programs. New pest problems are driving a renewed interest and demand by Florida growers of ornamentals for effective natural enemies. These problems include new pests for which pesticides provide marginal control as well as significant levels of pesticide resistance in key pests. Our challenge is to overcome the obstacles to developing and implementing reliable biological control alternatives.
|Commercial production of biological control agents for use in Florida’s protected crops. N. Leppla, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Florida has very active suppliers of natural enemies, many with extensive national and international markets, but a commercial biological control industry has not yet coalesced in our state. We have one well-established natural enemy producer with a limited range of products and a few full-time consultants in the field. However, our increasingly lucrative market for natural enemies is being served mostly by producers and suppliers from other states (http://www.cdpr.ca.gov). Florida agriculture would benefit greatly by having a resident biological control industry.
|Mosquito oviposition stimulants in nature: revisiting infusions and cow manure with modern GC-mass spectrometry. D. A. Carlson and A. C. Wilkie. USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL
|Mosquito oviposition stimulants have been known for years, usually described from an organic substrate that is drowned in water to allow fermentation into an odorous tea, accomplished by unknown bacteria that serve as food for mosquito larvae. We analyzed several infusion samples made from grass and hay for a comparison with odorous compounds from cow and pig manure with recent analyses using state-of-the-art sampling techniques together with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Curiously, many of the same compounds are present and are shown here. This suggests that the raw material in these infusions is more important than the processing organisms, whether this processing occurs inside the cow via bacteria or outside the cow via bacteria.
|Biology and host specificity of the thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), a candidate for classical biological control of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebithifolius (Anacardiaceae), in Florida. J. P. Cuda, J. C. Medal, J. L. Gillmore, L P. Sousa, M. D. Vitorino, J. H. Pedrosa-Macedo, and D. H. Habeck. Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Brazilian peppertree was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the 19th century. It invades disturbed and natural areas in Florida where it forms dense thickets that displace native vegetation. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini severely damages Brazilian peppertree in its native range. Host range studies conducted in Brazil and Florida suggest P. ichini may be sufficiently host specific to release in Florida for classical biological control of Brazilian peppertree.
|Catching kids with cyber bugs. J. M. Gavilánez-Slone and John T. Zenger. Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
entomology web sites, the world of insects can be made available to a large
disjunct audience of youth. Through the "Club del Bicho" Web site, Spanish-speaking
youth can participate in online quiz contests, learn about insect activities
and projects, post artwork, and communicate with club entomologists and
other club members. This poster presentation will include a working demostration
version of the Club del Bicho Web site and information on its development,
maintenance and future.
Con la ayuda de la red electrónica (WWW) el mundo de los insectos, más los efectos visuales e interactividad, está al alcance de una vasta audencia juvenil. EL Club del Bicho es un ejemplo de ellos, donde los chicos pueden participar en pequeñas pruebas, una gran variedad de actividades y proyectos sobre insectos, exhibir sus obras artísticas y comunicarse con entomólogos del club u otros miembros del club. La presentación del póster incluirá una demostración de la versión del sitio electrónico del Club del Bicho con la que trabajamos e información sobre su desarrollo, mantenimiento y futuro.
|Recent results in research on pest management of the cycad aulacaspis scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). F. W. Howard, Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
|Methods are described in which populations of Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Diaspididae) were suppressed with foliar applications of fish oil emulsion, while natural enemies were spread locally by transfer on plants. The oil treatment was compatible with establishing biological control locally. For some situations (e.g., quarantine treatments in nurseries), several synthetic organic insecticides provided a higher degree of control, but in this case biological control is sacrificied.
|Aphid transmission of citrus tristeza virus through membrane feeding. W. B. Hunter, S. M. Garnsey, and C. Behe. USDA-ARS U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL
|A method for transmission of citrus tristeza virus from an artificial membrane system to plants was developed. Citrus tristeza virus, CTV, was transmitted to lime seedlings by the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) when fed sap from infected Sweet orange contained within a Parafilm® membrane. The proportion of plants successfully infected from acquisition feeding on the extracted sap was higher than that for transmissions from flush of an infected source plant. Membrane-feeding resulted in a transmission success of 22%, while ‘natural’ transmission of the CTV isolate B3, (T36) resulted in transmission rates of 3%. This method is being used in studies on CTV transmission and for the presence of a helper component.
|Entomopathogenic nematodes and other natural enemies as mortality factors for larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus. C. W. McCoy, D. Shapiro, L. Duncan, and K. Nguyen. Citrus Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL
|Parasitism and persistence of three species of entomopathogenic nematodes were evaluated as biopesticides against larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus in a mature citrus grove using different soil sampling methods. In three separate tests, commercial formulations of different nematodes were applied at rates from 11-216 IJ’s/cm2 to the soil beneath the tree. Parasitism and/or predation by either commercially-applied nematodes or indigenous natural enemies associated with weevil larvae in the soil was measured using larvae-baited screened cages.
|Plecoptera of Florida: biodiversity and spatial distribution. A. K. Rasmussen, M. L. Pescador, and B. A. Richard. Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL
|Our recent survey of stoneflies occurring within Florida documents approximately 40 species representing 19 genera in 9 families. The last statewide survey was published in 1979 by Stark and Gaufin wherein they reported 26 species. The present study reports more than 10 species that represent either new state records or species new to science. Approximately 20% of the named species found in Florida are precinctive to the southeastern United States. The Perlidae and Perloididae are the most speciose families, accounting for approximately 70% of the total fauna. As expected, we report no stoneflies from South Florida, and only a few species within the northern region of the peninsula. Within the North Florida Panhandle, species richness is significantly higher in the West than in the East.
|Effectiveness of Novaluron in controlling silverleaf whitefly. C. Sabines & D. R. Seal. Tropical Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Homestead, FL
|Effectiveness of two formulations (EC & SC) of Novaluron were determined in controlling silverleaf whitefly eggs, nymphs and adults. Both formulations were effective in controlling eggs and nymphs. However, Novaluron was not effective in controlling adult populations of silverleaf whitefly.
|A Yellowstriped Oakworm, Anisota peigleri (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae): An Urban Shade Tree Pest. D. Serrano & J. L. Foltz, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|A yellowstriped oakworm, Anisota peigleri, has been an urban shade tree pest in the Gainesville, Florida area for the past five years. A. peigleri is present in the fall with caterpillars feeding on oaks from September through late October. A. peigleri is highly gregarious during the larval stage and in years of high populations it is considered a pest. This poster highlights what is known of the biology and ecology of this insect in order to aid in identification of this pest.
|Female house crickets' preference for the male house cricket calling songs. J. Head, Godby High School, Tallahassee, FL
|The purpose of this study was to determine the response of female house crickets (Acheta domestica) toward the male house cricket calling song. The calling song of one male consisting of high and low frequency calls was recorded, and the songs of an individual cricket were duplicated several times to create the auditory illusion of a chorus of male house crickets. Response of the female crickets to the different calling songs was analyzed in a T-maze. Female crickets showed no preference for high or low frequency calls, but they did show a significant preference for a chorus of males rather than the song of a single male.
|A psychological analysis of the cognition of the Periplaneta americana using a simple U-maze. C. Reccinella. Baker County Middle School, Macclenny, FL
|The web way to teach entomology. J. T. Zenger, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|The University of Florida course Principles of Entomology is now being offered online in a hybrid distance learning form. This hybrid course uses the Web to teach the lecture material but still relies on the strengths of a hands-on laboratory. This fall students can attend laboratories at two Research and Education Centers and at Gainesville. This paper will present the course's design and provide suggestions for those putting their own courses online.
|Club del Bicho: an entomology site for the youth. J. M. Gavilánez -Slone and J. T. Zenger, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
"Club del Bicho" is a unique Spanish-language entomological site for youth
to visit on the World Wide Web. While Club del Bicho was created with youth
in mind, it can also be used by parents, teachers, and youth group leaders
in the Spanish-speaking communities/countries. It contains interesting
links, trivia, activities and insect related projects. Members can post
their stories, poems, paintings and pictures about insects, and communicate
with club entomologists and other club members.
El Club del Bicho es un sitio en español único para jóvenes localizado en la red electrónica (WWW). Aunque el Club del Bicho fue creado teniendo a la juventud en mente, éste puede ser usado por padres, profesores y líderes de jóvenes en las comunidades/países de habla- hispana. Contiene conexiones interesantes, trivia, actividades y proyectos relacionados con insectos. Los miembros pueden exhibir sus cuentos, poemas, pinturas y fotos sobre insectos y comunicarse con entomólogos del club u otros miembros del club.
|Changes in twospotted spider mite management in Plant City strawberry following resistance to Abamectin. J. F. Price, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Bradenton, FL
|Florida produces over 6,000 acres of winter-grown, fresh market strawberry and the twospotted spider mite is problematic on most farms each year. Abamectin has been the principal control agent used, although about 15% of the acreage has been managed by biological control. Resistance in spider mites to abamectin became evident in the spring of 1999. This has resulted in greatly increased use of biological control, increased stewardship of abamectin and the emergency use of hexythiazox.
|Seasonal abundance and management of Thrips palmi Karny in South Florida. D. R. Seal, Tropical Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Homestead, FL
|Several studies were conducted to determine seasonal abundance of Thrips palmi Karny in bean, eggplants and potato. In all studies, T. palmi appeared in the fields in October or in November. Population peaked in Feb. to April. In June, populations of T. palmi start disappearing from the vegetable fields. Among, all insecticides, Spintor provided satisfactory control of T. palmi.
|Detection of begomoviruses in developmental stages of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J. E. Polston, T. A. Sherwood, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Bradenton, and A. Nava, Dept. of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
|Eight extraction protocols were evaluated for their usefulness in the detection of tomato mottle and tomato yellow leaf curl viruses in eggs, 1st instars, 2nd plus 3rd instars, 4th instars and adults of B. tabaci biotype B by PCR. ToMoV and TYLCV were detected in 2nd, 3rd, 4th instars and in adults. The effect of honeydew on detection of instars was evaluated.
|Fulfill reduces transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J. E. Polston, T. A. Sherwood, and A. Post, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Bradenton, FL
|The antifeedant compound marketed by Novartis for control of viruses persistently transmitted by aphids was evaluated for its usefulness as a protectant for tomato transplants from whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. The compound was found to provide excellent protection against transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by relatively high populations of viruliferous whiteflies for up to one week after a single application.
|Identification of a virus infecting Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). C. P. Patte, W. B. Hunter, and J. E. Polston, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Bradenton, FL
|Adult whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) were collected in Homestead, Florida in May 1998. The insects were ground and filtered and added to an immortalized cell line derived from B. tabaci. Cells became distorted and large spherical virus-like particles were observed by electron microscopy. Southern blotting, PCR, and sequencing of the amplified product revealed the presence of an iridovirus.
|Susceptibility of Technomyrmex albipes to different concentrations of an experimental liquid bait. B. S. Ferster, Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, and G. J. Cashion, FMC Corporation, Palm Harbor, FL
|Tests with a liquid bait containing the active ingredient, bifenthrin, revealed that laboratory colonies of white-footed ants, Technomyrmex albipes, can be eliminated in less than three weeks. Ants exposed to 1% boric acid bait typically required 30 – 60 days for colony elimination. Field testing is planned to further evaluate the efficacy of this bait as a tool in a systematic approach to control of T. albipes.
|Designing a practical guide to the pest ants of Florida. B. Ferster, M. Deyrup and R. H. Scheffrahn, Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
|Florida has a broad diversity of pestiferous ants including many non-endemic species. Knowledge of each is essential for selecting the proper control strategy. We developed a field guide for the identification and biology of the most common pest ant species for use by pest control professionals. The gestalt of each species is conveyed with color photographs, line drawings, and simulated foraging patterns. Authenticated distribution maps are depicted along with diagnostic information on foraging, nesting, and morphology.
|Field proven techniques for IPM of white-footed ants. J. Paige, III, Bayer Co., Vero Beach, FL
|The White-Footed Ant is an introduced pest into the state of Florida. This pest has flourished in S. Fl and is moving northward. This ant behaves differently from most ants. It does not exhibit trophallaxis, but instead lays trophic eggs with which to feed non-foraging members of the colony, so baiting has shown limited success. Removal of honeydew producing insects from the landscape should be the backbone of an IPM program for White-Footed Ants.
|The control of subterranean termites in residential structures using first line termite baits. B. Ryser & R. Lewis, FMC Specialty Products, Tampa, FL
|Twelve residential structures located in Florida were selected for the installation of monitors and/or First Line Termite Baits. Although most of the structures had previously received one or more liquid termiticide treatments, the structures continued to have active termite infestations. Following the use of monitors and First Line baits, termite activity ceased both inside and in monitors placed outside the structures. First Line termite baits, used alone, provided protection against termite infestation to all of the structures.
|Collection of noctuid moths in synthetic floral volatile-baited traps. R. L. Meagher, Jr. USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL
|Male and female noctuid moths were collected in phenylacetaldehyde-baited Unitraps in peanut fields. Species collected included soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis), corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), Agrotis subterranea, and several Spodoptera and Plusiinae species. Different substrates were used to release phenylacetaldehyde, although a plastic stopper proved to collect more moths. For several species, equal numbers of male and female moths were collected.
|Transgenic tephritid fruit flies for improved SIT. A. M. Handler, R. A. Harrell, and S. D. McCombs, USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL
|Genetic transformation has been achieved in the tephritid species Anastrepha suspensa, Ceratitis capitata, and Bactrocera dorsalis, which will allow the development of transgenic strains that can enhance the sterile insect technique and allow new novel strategies for biocontrol. These species have been transformed with a genetic marker using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene that will allow detection of released flies. New strategies for the creation of sterile males and female lethality for genetic sexing will be discussed.
|Vitellin-based ELISAs: New tools for diet development and quality control in insect rearing. J. P. Shapiro & S. M. Ferkovich. USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL
|Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are being developed to improve rearing methods for Podisus maculiventris and Orius insidiosis. These ELISAs employ monoclonal antibodies against yolk proteins (vitellins) and their precursors (vitellogenins). We are testing the concept that fecundity of these predators can be accurately predicted by assessing short-term changes in hemolymph or whole-body contents of vitellogenin or vitellin. This predictive capability will expedite diet development and pre-shipment quality control and assurance by commercial insectaries.
|Efficiency of acoustic systems for detection of Diaprepes abbreviatus. R. Mankin, USDA, ARS, CMAVE, Gainesville, FL, S. Lapointe, USDA, ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL, R. Franqui, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras
|A portable acoustic system was used to predict whether trees in citrus groves were infested with D. abbreviatus. The predictions were compared with counts of excavated organisms. D. abbreviatus or other pests were recovered from all 11 sites estimated at high likelihood of infestation but absent from 20 of 25 sites estimated low.
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07/26/00 Pat Greany and Richard Mankin