Florida Entomological Society, Eighty-fifth Annual Meeting, July 28-31, 2002

Abstracts of

Pioneer Lecture, Student Competition, Submitted Papers,
Posters, and Biological Control Symposium

Author List,

Science and Engineering Fair Awardees


Pioneer Lecture:
Regulatory Entomology and Biological Control: A Tribute to Reece Sailer

(see http://www.flaentsoc.org/sailer02.html )

Harold A. Denmark, Director (Retired)
Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Dr. Reece I. Sailer arrived in Florida at an opportune time to conduct biological control projects, entering arguably the nation’s largest entomological community and a well developed research and regulatory infrastructure. Biological control programs require taxonomists to provide authoritative identifications and an associated library, well-curated collections of specimens identified to species, and a secure building with limited access to contain exotic arthropods and arthropod pathogens. Mr. Harold A. Denmark dedicated his career to the creation of this kind of infrastructure for Florida, and helped to obtain and manage the supporting resources. This work began 49 years ago, in July 1953, when he left the Entomology Department of the University of Florida and accepted the position of Entomologist in the Entomology Bureau of the State Plant Board (SPB). He had been teaching biological control and apiculture, and was also interested in insect taxonomy. Although the Bureau was no longer conducting biological control programs, he was inspired by its mission. Mr. Ed Ayers, the recently appointed Plant Commissioner, was instructed to build an Entomology Bureau with an extensive insect collection and a regulatory capability second to no other state. Moreover, the SPB served as the Board of Control for the University of Florida Experiment Station. A close affiliation between the current forms of these institutions persists today and has provided Mr. Denmark with an opportunity to maintain close ties with the University.


Student Competition

8. Hanife Genc and J.L. Nation: The life cycle and laboratory rearing of Phyciodes phaon (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Phyla (=Lippia) nodiflora The butterfly phaon crescent Phyciodes phaon (Edwards) was reared from the egg to adult under controlled laboratory conditions. Eggs are deposited in clusters on the undersides of the host plant leaves, Phyla (=Lippia) nodiflora. Caterpillars are olive with brown and cream colored stripes and branching spines. There are five instars. Pupae are brown. A generation takes 23-31 days at 27oC, 16:8 hours photoperiod. This species occurs year round in Gainesville. 9. Kathryn Barbara and E.A. Buss: Exotic mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) management using the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scapterisci Nguyen and Smart Exotic mole crickets (Scapteriscus spp.) are the most injurious insect pests of golf courses, lawns, sod farms and pastures in Florida and throughout the southeastern United States. Damage is caused by tunneling and feeding on the root system which creates extensive galleries. We sought to suppress mole cricket numbers using the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scapterisci Nguyen and Smart. We placed 20 linear pitfall traps on two mole cricket hot spots within 10 different fairways on two Gainesville golf courses (40 traps total). Within each fairway, one hot spot (1/10th of an acre) was treated with nematodes and the other was untreated. The percentage of mole crickets infected with S. scapterisci before the fall 2001 application was 16.7% at Ironwood Golf Course and 20.4% at Gainesville Golf and Country Club. This showed that the nematode persisted on these golf courses after earlier applications in 1988 and 1989. Pesticides were commonly used on both courses. Post application infection to date is 33.9% at Ironwood and 24.4% at Gainesville Golf and Country Club, respectively. Data also demonstrate that the nematode is moving into untreated areas of the golf courses. Thus, use of S. scapterisci against pest mole crickets is a sustainable and low-risk IPM tool for turfgrass managers. 10. Dina L. Richman and P.G. Koehler: Risk assessment of construction and home maintenance practices to predict subterranean termite infestations A subterranean termite risk assessment system for northeastern Florida was developed based upon surveys of homeowners and pest management professionals. Information from 758 single-family homes built between 1994 and 1998 in Jacksonville Beach and St. John’s and Flagler Counties was collected regarding pre-construction termiticide treatment chemical, foundation type, wall type, presence of water next to the foundation, and wood-to-ground contact near the foundation. Each parameter was assigned points based upon conditional logistic regression of survey results, for a maximum rating of 100 risk points per structure. Mean risk rating of infested structures was significantly greater than the mean rating of non-infested structures. 11. Kim McCanless, P.G. Koehler and F.M. Oi: The effect of moisture on the survival of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes This study was conducted to determine the wood moisture level that is necessary to sustain subterranean termites (R. flavipes) without ground contact. Six moisture levels between 20-30% were evaluated. The results suggest that a moisture level about 25% is necessary to sustain R. flavipes workers in wood if they have no ground contact. 12. Richard M. Martyniak, P.G. Koehler and F.M. Oi: Selection of imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta host by decapitating phorid fly Pseudacteon tricuspis Some members of the genus Pseudacteon (family Phoridae) are obligate parasitoids of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta and have been imported and released in the southeastern United States as biocontrol agents. The species Pseudacteon tricuspis selects medium to large host Fire ant workers which are present at disturbed mounds. The behaviors of fly and host were captured utilizing motion digital recording and quantified. 13. Joe Jonovich: The effect of low soil moisture on the use of granular termiticides The effectiveness of three chemicals used as termiticides (Bifenthrin, Imidacloprid, and Fipronil) was tested when applied as a granular formation to control termites. Each chemical was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm. At low moisture levels the active ingredient may not be released from the granule effectively so tests were performed at 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% soil moisture levels. 14. Rebecca Baldwin, P.G. Koehler and F.M. Oi: Toxicity of dishwashing liquid to German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) Mortality of the German cockroach was measured after exposure to mixture of household dishwashing liquid and tap water. Adult male cockroaches (Blatella germanica) were exposed to the soap mixture for thirty seconds and were then observed for several hours. Immediate knockdown and mortality were measured. 15. Erin Finn and O.E. Liburd: Evaluation of monitoring techniques for detecting blueberry gall midge Blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson is a key pest of blueberries in Florida. During 2001, several sampling techniques were evaluated for their effectiveness in monitoring midge populations. Our assessment considered factors such as accuracy, ease of data collection, and cost. Initial results offer insight regarding midge behavior and amendments to sampling protocols. Sticky boards offer limited benefit for monitoring adults. Emergence and bud dissection methods each present advantages and disadvantages for detecting midge densities. 16. Deanna Branscome, P.G. Koehler and F.M. Oi: New records of Salmonella spp. bacteria recovered from insects Insects from food processing/handling facilities on the University of Florida campus were collected and assayed for the presence of Salmonella spp. bacteria. Insects were collected individually with aseptic techniques to prevent cross contamination. To detect the presence or absence of Salmonella spp. bacteria, standard bacteriological techniques were employed. It was found that several species of insects harbored Salmonella other than those identified in published literature. This paper presents the results of these new records. 17. Mirian Medina Hay-Roe and R.W. Mankin: Sound production in Heliconius cydno alithea In the presence of conspecifics, Heliconius cydno alithea individuals produce short bursts of 3-10 clicks at the rate of approximately 10 clicks/s. The individual clicks have a broad-band frequency spectrum, with a peak near 1075 Hz. This peak lies near the auditory organ’s 1200 Hz frequency of maximal sensitivity. Sounds were recorded at roosting time. However, sounds were also produced during the day during encounters with conspecifics. We hypothesize that sound production is a type of communication between members of the species. 18. Roxanne G. Burrus: Feeding preferences of Monomorium pharaonis in hospital environments Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant) is a common pest in hospitals and is attracted to many items used to treat patients, such as liver ointments in burn units, glucose in intravenous tubes, and bandages. I provided the ants with four food items to determine consumption of each. This information will be helpful in determining the causes of ant infestation in hospitals. 19. L. Scotty Long, J.P. Cuda and B.R. Stevens: Evaluation of a novel bio-rational compound for the control of various economic and medically important insect pests The preliminary results of field and laboratory tests of a new and safer pesticide are presented. The compound, L-methionine, is an essential amino acid that acts to interfere with important physiological functions within the digestive tract of insects while maintaining functions within other animals, including humans. Pest insect species Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) were tested, with L-methionine showing a high degree of susceptibility in both laboratory and field settings using artificial and natural diets. Host plant effects also were tested using treated Solanum melongena (eggplant) over a six-week period; no statistically significant effects of the compound on yield (fruit production and mean weight per treatment) were observed. Future testing methods and benefits of the compound for control of other insect pests are also discussed. 20. Cynthia L. Tucker, P.G. Koehler and F.M. Oi: Effects of soil compaction on the total tunnel network by subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) This study was conducted to determine the effect of soil compaction on the total tunnel network formation by subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes). The study evaluated the primary tunnel (PT) and secondary tunnel (ST) number and tunnel diameters. In addition, ST angles and the distance of the total tunnel network were measured. These results suggest that when soil is compacted to different soil densities, the termite tunnel network changes. 21. Matthew Aubuchon: Attraction of commercial light traps for house fly control The objective of this research is to measure efficacy of commercial light traps for control of the house fly Musca domestica. Flies were released in an enclosed assay consisting of a screen cage, duct tunneling, and a large box enclosing light traps. Fluorescent bulbs were placed in traps for controls. Irradiance of ultraviolet light emitting from traps was measured with a spectrometer. 22. Yasmin J. Cardoza and J.H. Tumlinson: Fungus-induced plant-insect interactions in peanut We tested the effect of chemical changes induced in peanut plants by fungal infection on beet armyworm (BAW) larval feeding and adult oviposition preference. We also evaluated the volatile responses of peanut plants under attack by the white-mold and BAW, alone or in combination. Finally, we evaluated the effect of fungally-induced changes in volatiles emissions on the response of BAW larval parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris, on infected and healthy plants exposed to BAW damage.



23. Fred Punzo: Effects of contact with maternal parent and siblings on hunting behavior, spatial learning, and CNS development in spiderlings of Hogna carolinensis (Araneae: Lycosidae) Spiderlings of H. carolinensis that had contact with their maternal parent and siblings during the first 5 days after emergence (enriched conditions, EC) exhibited significantly improved performance in a complex maze (tested at 12 weeks of age) as compared to spiderlings reared in isolation (impoverished conditions, IC). Percent capture of prey was higher in EC spiderlings. EC spiderlings also exhibited larger volumes for certain brain regions including the mushroom and central bodies. 24. Guy J. Hallman and J.S. Beckwith: Irradiation treatments to safely and efficiently move Florida agricultural commodities across quarantine boundaries Irradiation can disinfest commodities for shipment to areas that quarantine against certain pests. Florida is using it for guavas and sweetpotatoes, but greater potential exists. Hawaii uses irradiation against 4 fruit flies on 8 fruits and has requests pending for mango seed weevil and green scale. Florida should be able to use irradiation now against almost any fruit where Caribfly is the only concern and irradiation has possibilities with other pests. 25. Russell F. Mizell and O.N. Nesheim: The Southern Region Pest Management Center The Southern Region Pest Management Center was awarded to the authors in a three year grant as one of 4 region centers in the U.S. The Center funds state investigators in the 13 southern states and Puerto Rico to address issues related to the Food Quality Protection Act and pest management. We have established a region communication network with stakeholders and are developing crop profiles and pest management strategic plans for key commodities. 26. Russell F. Mizell: A dangerous problem caused by overwintering Harmonia axyridis at railroad crossings The multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, causes tremendous problems for the public by its habit of overwintering in human dwellings. The problem extends from coast to coast and millions of homes are affected. Recently I was contacted by the local railroad concerning a problem with the ladybird overwintering in the metal housing of the signal arms at railroad crossings in north Florida. The problem will be described and discussed. 27. Barbara D. Dueben, J.M. Gavilanez-Slone and P.E.A. Teal: Effect of adult diet composition on mortality, pheromone production and female attraction in male Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Caribbean fruit flies survive less than 48 hours when fed only protein + water, but 20+ days when fed sugar + water or sugar + protein + water. The total pheromone released by males fed sugar + water is less than 10% of males fed protein + sugar + water. Flight tunnel studies showed that females are significantly more attracted to males fed protein + sugar + water than those fed just sugar + water. 28. Jorge M. Gonzalez, J.T. Dye and R.W. Matthews: Polymorphism in Melittobia digitata and M. australica (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Melittobia are gregariously developing, sexually dimorphic parasitoid wasps. Using morphological or behavioral criteria, previous researchers have recognized 1 or 2 male morphs and 2 or 3 female morphs in various species. However, our analysis of single-clutch progeny of two species reveals a continuum in morphological characteristics in males (thus, one morph), but a bimodal distribution (two morphs) in females. Controlled feeding and aging experiments suggest that these factors may account for the discrepancy. 29. Heberto Prieto G. and J.M. Gonzalez: The ant fauna of the Ana María Campos Peninsula (PAMC) mangrove, Zulia, Venezuela The ants of two mangrove communities, [PAMC and Cienaga Los Olivitos (CLO) (30 Km north of PAMC)], from Zulia, Venezuela were surveyed. Collections were sampled every 15 days from June 1999 to March 2000. A total of 35 species (34 PAMC; 18 CLO; 17 Shared) was found in both sites belonging to 16 genera in 5 subfamilies; many of the PAMC species (19) could be considered anthropocentric, whereas only 10 such species were encountered in the CLO. 30. Clay W. McCoy, R.J. Stuart, H.N. Nigg, I. Jackson, J. Fojtik and A. Hoyte: Seasonal adult emergence from soil of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) in irrigated and non-irrigated citrus plantings in central Florida Adult emergence from the soil by Diaprepes abbreviatus, estimated by weekly catches in cone-shaped ground traps, occurred throughout the year with a peak in mid-June in both irrigated and non-irrigated plantings. Onset of adult emergence appeared to be triggered by soil moisture and temperature. Trap counts were highest when soil moisture declined to 5 centibars at a depth of 30 cm and soil temperature averaged 2-24EC. In the non-irrigated planting, the adult emergence peak was of shorter duration, but of greater magnitude, compared to the irrigated planting. 31. Robin J. Stuart and C.W. McCoy: Ants as predators of the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): does the age of neonate weevil larvae influence predation? This study tested for differential predation on 5-day versus 1-2 h old Diaprepes neonates under grapefruit trees in a central Florida citrus grove. A total of 2620 of the 3840 larvae were preyed upon but the predation rate on old versus young larvae did not differ at 68.75% and 67.71%, respectively. The ants, Pheidole moerens Wheeler and Solenopsis invicta Buren, were the most active predators and were responsible for 62.5% and 25.3% of the observed predation, respectively. 32. Stephen L. Lapointe, W. Hunter, P. Dang, M. Bausher and J. Chaparro: Weevil genomics: an EST library for the Diaprepes root weevil We have initiated a project to analyze expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the Diaprepes root weevil. Results of the first EST library for this species are presented, including total number of sequences, unique sequences, contigs, matches with genomic databases, and putative gene functions. 33. Wayne B. Hunter, J.X. Chaparro, W. McKendre, R.G. Shatters, P. Dang, C.L. McKenzie, X.H. Sinisterra and M.G. Bausher: Constructing a homopteran gene database using an aphid cDNA library as a model A multinational effort to develop cDNA libraries to address important scientific questions related to homopteran pests will rapidly advance research on these insects. Using expressed sequence tags, EST’s, scientists can understand the molecular basis of insect growth and development, and address fundamental questions in insect physiology, biochemistry, cell biology, and pathology. 34. Wayne B. Hunter, P. Dang, M.G. Bausher, H. Costa, J.X. Chaparro, R.G. Shatters, C. L. McKenzie and X. Sinisterra: Deciphering genes of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, using expressed sequence tags, ESTs, from Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) A new set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a cDNA library of the glassy-winged sharpshooter were used to identify genes critical to leafhopper biology. Results of the first EST library for this species are presented, including total number of sequences, unique sequences, contigs, matches with genomic databases, and putative gene functions. 35. Cindy L. McKenzie, W.B. Hunter, J.X. Chaparro and G. Puterka: Effect of sucrose octanoate on survival of Asiatic citrus psyllid, brown citrus aphid and sweetpotato whitefly B biotype We determined the insecticidal activity of a synthetic analogue of natural sugar esters (sucrose octanoate (SO)) found in leaf trichomes of wild tobacco to egg, nymph and adult Asiatic citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Laboratory bioassays, greenhouse and field trial results are presented. Bioassay results are also presented for brown citrus aphid (BrCA), Toxoptera citricida, vector of Citrus Tristeza virus, and the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, vector of Begomoviruses. 36. Cindy L. McKenzie, W.B. Hunter, J.K. Brown, X. Sinisterra, T. Sasaki and R.G. Shatters: Cultivation of endosymbiont bacteria in a Bemisia tabaci B biotype cell line A complement of eubacterial endosymbionts was cultivated in a whitefly cell line. Endosymbiont identification was verified using diagnostic PCR, DNA sequencing, Western Blot analysis and real time RT-PCR. This is the first report of in vitro cultivation of at least two of these arthropod endosymbionts in an insect cell line. Molecular analysis of these endosymbionts and the associated reproductive alterations found in natural arthropod hosts should be facilitated by the development of an in vitro culture system and will aid in determining the influence of these organisms on insect biology. 37. Richard J. Lobinske, A. Ali and R.J. Leckel: Spatial and temporal immature life stage distributions of the pestiferous midge Glyptotendipes paripes (Chironomidae: Diptera) in a eutrophic north-central Florida lake Spatial and temporal distributions of immature life stages of the nuisance midge Glyptotendipes paripes were examined monthly in eutrophic Lake Wauburg from March 2000 to February 2001. Mean larval/pupal density ranged from 5,206 to 19,442/m2. Fourth instars were numerically most abundant, comprising 40-74% of total immatures collected; all instars were collected throughout the year, but pupae were rare during winter. Annual productivity was estimated at 156.9 g/m2. Spatial analysis revealed dispersal of fourth instars wider than other life stages. 38. Allen A. Weathersbee and R.C. Bullock: Molecular differentiation of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Pachnaeus litus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) egg masses The Diaprepes root weevil (DRW), Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), and the blue green root weevil, Pachnaeus litus (Germar), are both pests of nurseries and citrus groves in Florida. The DRW is the more serious pest, and counts of egg masses are often used as indices of abundance and potential damage. Unfortunately, egg masses deposited by these weevils cannot be visually differentiated and rearing-out is cumbersome. We developed a simple and quick molecular approach to distinguish the egg masses. 39. Matthew Hentz and G. Nuessly: Technique for mass production of Euxesta stigmatias (corn silk fly) using an artificial diet The saprophytic otitid fly Euxesta stigmatias Loew, known locally as the corn silk fly, is a serious pest of sweet corn in peninsular Florida. Damage levels can reach >90% if infested fields are left untreated. Herein we present our artificial technique for rearing large numbers of flies required for host plant resistance and insecticide efficacy trials. Development rates, sex ratios and adult longevity are also presented. 40. Stephen D. Hight, J.E. Carpenter, S. Bloem and K.A. Bloem: Distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in the southeastern United States The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, feeds on prickly pear cacti (Opuntia spp.). The moth is an outstanding biological control success in Australia and South Africa against alien cacti. In 1989 it was found as an invasive species in the Florida Keys. Its range has recently been determined to have expanded as far north as Charleston, SC along the Atlantic and the Florida Big Bend area along the Gulf of Mexico. 41. David Oi, D.F. Williams and C.A. Watson: Imported fire ant monitoring and treatment on a tropical fish farm Red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, populations were monitored by surveying nest locations and counting ants at bait stations on a tropical fish farm. An ant bait, containing the insect growth regulator methoprene, was broadcast between ponds. Fire ant populations declined an average of 68% and increased 110% during the summer for treated and untreated areas, respectively. No fish mortalities related to the ant baiting were observed during the study. 42. Karin Hallborg, L.S. Osborne and J.P. Cuda: The rearing of Diomus terminatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for the biological control of aphids Diomus terminatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) can be reared off-plant, under artificial light and on artificial diet. This allows for the potential of economical mass rearing methods. In addition, previous data demonstrate high aphid consumption when fed Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. Diomus terminatus has also been shown to consume Aphis nerii and Rhopalasidium maidis and some mealy bugs. The results of these data indicate a strong potential for D. terminatus as a new commercially available biological control agent. 43. Nancy D. Epsky, T.J. Weissling and R.R. Heath: Strategies at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (USDA/ARS) for mitigating exotic pest insects In 1999, entomology at the USDA/ARS, SHRS was directed to take a proactive approach to the mitigation of exotic insects that threaten U.S. agriculture. The objective of this research is to develop environmentally-safe methods to diminish the risk of introduction of foreign pests into the U.S. Studies on the life history, host range, behavior and chemical ecology will provide information that can used in the development of management strategies for these pests. 44. Thomas J. Weissling, R. Giblin-Davis and R.R. Heath: Metamasius hemipterus sericeus seasonal and diel activity patterns Response of M. h. sericeus to traps baited with sugarcane and aggregation pheromone was investigated over a two-year period and within 24-hour periods. Capture of weevils varied through time but peaked in the spring following the beginning of the rainy season. Diel observations indicated a strong crepuscular activity pattern. 45. David G. Hall: Laboratory rearing of the sugarcane borer and its parasite Cotesia flavipes An overview of laboratory rearing of Cotesia flavipes on the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is presented. U.S. Sugar has been producing and releasing Cotesia for borer control since 1993. During 2001, ~6,000,000 Cotesia were released across our ~150,000 acres of cane. The importance of the borer has declined, which we attribute to the Cotesia program. Annual percentage of our acreage with economic outbreaks of the borer 1991-2000: 6.0, 8.7, 4.7, 7.2, 8.4, 4.6, 3.4, 1.6, 0.5, and 0.1, respectively. 46. Susan Halbert, M. Terrell and L. Olsen: Flight activity and Florida host information for Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama Nearly two years of suction trapping data in a citrus nursery document the invasion and establishment of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Hendry County. Flight activity peaked suddenly in both years corresponding to spring citrus flush. Asian citrus psyllids were collected in every month of the year, but numbers of adults were highest in March. Sampling in the Florida Citrus Arboretum revealed several new hosts of Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. 46a. R. Nguyen, D.G. Hall, J. Peña, D. Amalin, C. McCoy, S.L. Lapointe, B. Adair and P. Stansly: Rearing methods for Quadrastichus haitiensis (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for biological control of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). A review of rearing procedures for the parasitoid Quadrastichus haitiensis is presented along with preliminary information on the establishment of this parasitoid for biological control of the weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus in Florida.


Submitted Papers

1. Ronald Cherry: Insects as examples of parallel mythology Parallel myths are myths with similar basic themes found in different cultures around the world. Data presented will show that myths about Diptera and Lepidoptera are clearly examples of parallel mythology. 2. Bruce Ryser and C.L. Palmer: FLTDS: an integrated strategy to manage termite populations in Florida, 1999-2001 First Line Termite System provides protection of structures by combining termiticide treatments as full or spot applications combined with baiting. In Florida from November 1999 through June 2001, 41 commercial and residential sites were inspected, treated with termiticide as needed and Smartdisc monitors installed around structures every 10 feet. When monitors exhibited termite activity, First Line GT+ bait stations were installed. Each site was monitored monthly and inspected annually for termite activity. FLTDS was installed both preventively and remedially. Results indicate FLTDS provides an integrated strategy to manage termite populations around structures. 3. Joseph M. Faella and J.M. Stewart: Midge control on Lake Monroe, Florida Lake Monroe, Florida, is a shallow and eutrophic system that supports high abundances of chironomid species – primarily Glyptotendipes paripes and Chironomus crassicaudatus – which cause tremendous economic loss to the city of Sanford. Consequently, for three years, East Volusia County Mosquito Control has applied previous research to a successful midge control program. Control methods include larval surveillance, larvaciding and New Jersey trap enumeration. In addition, current investigations explore meteorological and light variation effects on adult behavior. 4. Richard W. Mankin: Handheld acoustic detection devices to detect hidden infestations of Diaprepes larvae in citrus groves Handheld acoustic detection devices have been developed that show considerable promise as tools for detecting hidden infestations of Diaprepes larvae in citrus groves. New acoustic signal processing techniques are being tested to assist in discriminating insect produced signals from background noises. A wavelet analysis that combines information about signal duration and frequency has proved useful in identifying weak subterranean larval sounds in windy conditions and in fields near highways. 5. Robert L. Meagher: Sampling for noctuid adult and larval stages in pasture grasses Adults and larvae of the grass looper (Mocis latipes), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and true armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta), were sampled in forages in south-central Florida. Adults were sampled using pheromone- and floral volatile-baited traps, and larvae were sampled using sweep nets and observation. Grass looper adults and larvae were the most common species found, and adults were easily collected in floral volatile-baited traps. This is important because pheromone-baited traps are not available for this species. 6. Jorge M. Gonzalez. M.T. Badaraco and R.W. Matthews: Interactions between two parasitoids on the same host: competitive exclusion or coexistence? Flesh fly (Neobelleria bullata) puparia, natural hosts for Nasonia vitripennis, also are facultative hosts for a smaller parasitoid, Melittobia digitata. In 600 paired-female, single-host laboratory trials, Nasonia produced the sole offspring 37% of the time; M. digitata, 22%; and both, 23%. When they coexisted, offspring production was higher for Melittobia relative to Nasonia, and the sex ratio of N. vitripennis became skewed toward females while the sex ratio of M. digitata was unaffected. 7. Oscar Liburd and J. Hamill: Captures of blueberry maggot fly in Georgia and northeast Florida and potential for monitoring with host volatile compounds Blueberry maggot Rhagoletis mendax Curran has been known as the key late-season pest limiting production of highbush blueberries Vaccinium spp. in the northeast. Recently, high populations of R. mendax have been recorded in Bacon County, Georgia and Hamilton County, Florida in commercial Rabbiteye blueberry fields. We evaluated the potential to monitor R. mendax flies with host volatile compounds. Our results indicate that cis-3-hexen-1ol and butyl butyrate have demonstrated high potential for monitoring R. mendax populations. 53. Stephen L. Lapointe, W.B. Hunter and C.L. McKenzie. Allelochemical properties of the tropical legume Tephrosia spp. against the Diaprepes root weevil The Leguminosae produce allelochemicals with behavioral and toxic effects. Species of Tephrosia produce a range of flavonoids including isoflavonoid rotenoids with insecticidal activity. We characterized antifeedant and toxic properties of 2 Tephrosia species. T. candida deterred adult feeding, reduced oviposition, and increased larval mortality of Diaprepes root weevil compared with T. vogelii and a citrus control. Possible uses of T. candida include a suppressive mulch, intercrop, or source of a Diaprepes-active botanical insecticide. 54. Gregg Nuessly and M. Hentz: Susceptibility of adult Euxesta stigmatias (corn silk fly) to insecticides labeled for sweet corn Many insecticides are labeled for Florida sweet corn that may be used directly or indirectly against the ear pest Euxesta stigmatias. Results on adult knock down, mortality and recovery will be presented from laboratory- and field-based direct contact, vial and plant residue bioassays. Organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides provided the best overall control. Changes in field efficacy over time with increasing environmental exposure was product specific. 55. Ellen Thoms: Foraging activity of Amitermes floridensis in central Florida The foraging activity of Amitermes floridensis in Sentricon® stations was assessed using monitoring records of commercial and research sites. Records were evaluated for 38 homes in Punta Gorda/Port Charlotte where A. floridensis were found in Sentricon stations serviced by an Authorized Operator. Mark-recapture of A. floridensis colonies was conducted around 3 homes in Lake Placid. No structural damage from A. floridensis was observed or reported during this study. A. floridensis can be a primary invader or secondary invader, after Reticulitermes populations are baited and eliminated, into Sentricon stations. Surface feeding of wood monitors and bait matrix by A. floridensis was consistently observed. The number of A. floridensis in wood monitors and percent consumption of these monitors per station was less than that observed for Reticulitermes flavipes at the same site. A. floridensis seasonal activity in monitoring stations was more erratic than that observed for R. flavipes. 56. Gary W. Felton and M. Peiffer: Secretion of salivary proteins by caterpillars Noctuid larvae such as the Helicoverpa zea secrete salivary proteins that may suppress the induced responses of their host plants. There is very little quantitative and qualitative information known about the composition of salivary secretions of herbivorous insects. We demonstrate here that a major salivary protein, glucose oxidase, is secreted in copious amounts during larval feeding on their host plants. 57. Dakshina Seal: Evaluation of various management practices in controlling pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Col.: Curculionidae) Actara, Calypso and Vydate alone significantly reduced pepper weevil. Actara or Calypso in rotation with Vydate and Cryolite provided satisfactory control of pepper weevil. Platinum (thiomethoxam) applied through drip system was not as effective as the same insecticide when applied foliarly. Application of Actara (thiamethoxam) at the rate of 2 oz./A for times at weekly intervals controlled pepper weevil more than the same insecticide applied at the rate of 4 oz./A for two times at two/three weeks intervals. 58. Laura Remmen: Penetration into treated sand by the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and associated mortality Sand was treated with thiamethoxam at concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 ppm. At concentrations >80 ppm mortality was 100%. Mortality was significantly different for Coptotermes formosanus from that for Reticulitermes flavipes. 59. Erin J. Monteagudo: Evaluation of halofenozide as an effective bait against the Eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) A choice test was conducted to examine preference, deterrence and lethality of the insect growth regulator bait halofenozide on Eastern subterranean termites. Termites were added to jars containing untreated and vacuum-impregnated wood blocks covered with soil and moistened with water. Preliminary results demonstrated a range of 100-1,000 ppm produced 0-100% mortality. 60. Norman C. Leppla and D.J. Sonke. Coordinating IPM, emphasizing biological control in Florida The University of Florida, IFAS recently appointed its first full-time IPM Coordinator to provide leadership in developing and implementing IPM emphasizing biological control for agriculture, urban environments and natural resources. Current activities include serving as a contact, identifying expertise, inventorying and publicizing successes, establishing mini-grants to conduct small scale demonstration projects, fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, increasing the visibility and delivery of IPM, promoting cooperation among institutions and building a Web site (http://biocontrol.ifas.ufl.edu). 61. Jeffrey P. Shapiro and S.M. Ferkovich: Yolk protein ELISA to determine fitness and assess diets for mass-reared Orius insidiosus A yolk protein ELISA (YP-ELISA) for Orius insidiosus has been used to determine fitness of females reared in commercial insectaries, and to determine responses to experimental diets. Fitness is measured under defined conditions as yolk protein content in egg-equivalents per female. The biochemistry and metabolism of O. insidiosus yolk protein (vitellin) were studied to enable the development of improved protein standards and the routine acquisition of reliable results. 62. Christopher Tipping and E.J. Mitcham: The effects of Silwet L-77 on several arthropod pests associated with California table grapes. Surfactants, or surface acting agents, are often used as adjuvants to facilitate the dispersing, spreading, or wetting of active ingredients. Silwet L-77, an organosilicone surfactant, was applied to selected arthropod pests of California table grapes. Mortality was variable between species and life stage. Treatments applied to 'Thompson Seedless' grapes were not damaged; however, grapes appeared wetted after removal from cold storage. Grapes dried with the normal bloom on berries when they reached room temperature.

63. Adrian G.B. Hunsberger: Are bugs bugging you?

As an extension agent/entomologist, there is a great opportunity and need to educate the general public about insects. The greatest challenge is making the subject interesting to wary and diverse audiences. The role of beneficials, least-toxic pest management, and basic insect identification is taught. Various outlets are currently used, which include: mass media, presentations at schools, festivals, plant societies, as well as one-on-one teaching.


Biocontrol Symposium / Debate

47. J.P. Michaud: Do we really need exotic parasitoids to combat every invasive pest? Classical biological control is the introduction of exotic natural enemies for purposes of controlling pests, usually invasive species. On one hand, this may be viewed as the relinking of pests with their natural enemies to restore ecological stability. On the other hand, there is theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that the arbitrary addition of species to an ecosystem is more likely to result in community disruption and destabilization. Certainly, classical ‘failures’ greatly outnumber classical ‘successes’ in the literature, despite the fact that many failures may go unreported. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that several newly arrived pests of citrus are under good biological control by natural enemies already present in Florida. Introductions of exotic species may sometimes be advantageous, but this approach should not be an automated first-response to all invasive species. Rather, efforts should first be directed towards measuring the responses of native species to an invasive pest prior to resorting to exotic introductions. 48. Roy G. Van Driesche: Avoiding premature or inappropriate use of classical biological control of arthropods: criteria for good projects Because all species introductions involve some risk, classical biocontrol projects should be chosen based on ecological and economic criteria that demonstrate real need and possible success. Economic or ecological information should demonstrate losses or ecological damage not likely to be resolved by native natural enemies or other control options. Given the pest’s taxonomic group, its feeding niche and the kind of natural enemies proposed for use, there should be at least a reasonable change for success. 49. Jorge E. Peña and D.G. Hall: A "biased" analysis of the classical biological control of Diaprepes abbreviatus in Florida The first classical biological control effort for Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was initiated during the mid 70s and failed. A second multi-agency effort began around 1997 and has consisted of a survey to determine presence of native parasitoids, followed by foreign exploration, quarantine studies, production, release and recovery efforts of the Caribbean parasitoids Ceratogramma etiennei (Trichogrammatidae), Quadrastichus haitiensis (Gahan) [=Tetrastichus haitiensis] and Aprostocetus vaquitarum (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Release and recovery efforts were primarily aimed at establishing parasitoids in multiple locations using caged and open field releases. Aprostocetus vaquitarum and Quadrastichus haitiensis appear to show promise by being recovered in different sites in Florida whereas C. etiennei failed. Despite the partial success of these recoveries, a more aggressive approach and better funded exploration and basic studies in the areas of origin of Diaprepes are needed to determine if other additional and more effective parasitoids are present in the Caribbean Region. 50. Joe Funderburk and S. Reitz: Biological control programs for Frankliniella thrips in field and greenhouse crops using Orius Orius spp. are important predators of flower thrips (Frankliniella spp.) in temperate and tropical agro-ecosystems worldwide. Integrated management programs for flower thrips are being adopted that rely on conservation of natural Orius populations. A classical biological control program using Orius spp. is widely employed in commercial greenhouse production. Classical biocontrol approaches are under way to establish species of Orius into new geographical areas, even though the benefits and risks are difficult to accurately assess. 51. Russell F. Mizell: Impact of Harmonia axyridis and the case for "secondary" predators as biological control agents The multicolored Asian ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, was established in the U.S. in the late 1980s and arrived in Florida in 1993. Following its establishment, the ladybird has had significant impact on populations of aphids and other pests in many habitats. The impact of the ladybird on native predators in pecan and ornamentals will be discussed. The case for "secondary" predators as a method of more targeted and innocuous biological control will also discussed. 52. Phil Stansly, J. Calvo, E. Sanchez, J. Lopez and A. Urbaneja: Augmentative biological control of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Spanish greenhouses with a native versus an exotic parasitoid Protected horticulture in Spain includes a 100,000-acre vegetable industry on the southern Mediterranean coast where the main crops are tomato and sweet pepper. While the key pest of both crops is the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, losses are especially severe in tomato due to vectoring of tomato yellow leafcurl virus (TYLCV). Eretmocerus mundus, a native parasitoid from the Mediterranean region first described from Murcia, Spain, has been observed spontaneously parasitizing B. tabaci in fruiting vegetables throughout the region. However, due to commercial unavailability of this species which must be reared on B. tabaci, E. eremicus originally from America and reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum was first employed for whitefly control. A survey conducted in commercial greenhouses during the 1998/99 and 1999/2000 seasons demonstrated that, despite initial establishment, the exotic parasitoid was steadily replaced by the native one immigrating from outside. These results provided impetus to commence commercial production of E. mundus in Spain using B. tabaci as a host. A series of studies in the laboratory, a research greenhouse and commercial greenhouses were undertaken to: (1) estimate life history parameters of E. mundus on tomato and pepper, (2) evaluate release rates of E. mundus in tomato and pepper, and (3) evaluate the efficacy of E. mundus and E. eremicus alone and in competition. Higher release rates were required in tomato to achieve the same level of control as in pepper, largely due to higher infestation levels in tomato. Parasitism rates in 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m cages for the two Eretmocerus species alone were roughly equivalent after one generation but over 80% of parasitoids recovered from mixed releases were E. mundus. In commercial tomato where both species were released in separate quarters of 12 greenhouses in different regions, 85% of recoveries were E. mundus, regardless of sample location, compared to 3% where no releases were made. In commercial pepper, infestations were lowest and parasitism rates were highest in greenhouses (n = 4) receiving E. mundus alone compared to those receiving E. eremicus alone, and E. mundus predominated in recoveries from greenhouses receiving a 1:1 mix of both species. Thus, by all measures, the native E. mundus tested was better adapted than the exotic E. eremicus for control of B. tabaci on tomato and pepper in the Mediterranean region of Spain.


Alphabetical list of speakers/ poster-presenters. Name of each presenting author is in bold.

Adair, B. - 46a
Ali, A. - 37
Amalin, D. - 46a
Aubuchon, Matthew - 21
Badaraco, M.T. - 6
Baldwin, Rebecca - 14
Barbara, Kathryn A. - 9
Bausher, M.G. - 32, 33, 34
Beckwith, J.S. - 24
Bloem, K.A. - 40
Bloem, S. - 40
Branscome, Deanna D. - 16
Brown, J.K. - 36
Bullock, R.C. - 38
Burrus, Roxanne G. - 18
Buss, E.A. - 9
Calvo, J. - 52
Capinera. John L. (President’s address)
Cardoza, Yasmin J. - 22
Carpenter, J.E. - 40
Chaparro, J.X. - 32, 33, 34, 35
Cherry, Ronald - 1
Costa, H. - 34
Cuda, J.P. - 19, 42
Denmark, Harold A. (Pioneer Lecture)
Dang, P. - 32, 33, 34
Dueben, Barbara D. - 27
Dye, J.T. - 28
Epsky, Nancy D. - 43
Faella, Joseph M. - 3
Felton, Gary W. - 56
Ferkovich, S.M. - 61
Finn, Erin - 15
Fojtik, J. - 30
Funderburk, Joe - 50
Gavilanez-Slone, J.M. - 27
Genc, Hanife - 8
Giblin-Davis, R. - 44
Gonzalez, Jorge M. - 6, 28, 29
Halbert, Susan - 46
Hall, David G. - 45, 46a, 49
Hallborg, Karin M. - 42
Hallman, Guy J. - 24
Hamill, Jon - 7
Heath, R.R. - 43, 44
Hentz, Matthew - 39, 54
Hight, Stephen D. - 40
Hoyte, A. - 30
Hunter, Wayne B. - 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 53
Hunsberger, Adrian G.B. - 63
Jackson, I. - 30
Jonovich, Joe - 13
Koehler, P.G. - 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 20
Lapointe, Stephen L. - 32, 46a, 53
Leckel, R.J. - 37
Leppla, Norman C. - 60
Liburd, Oscar E. - 7, 15
Lobinske, Richard J. - 37
Long, L. Scotty - 19
Lopez, J. - 52
Mankin, Richard W. - 4, 17
Martyniak, R.M. - 12
Matthews, R.W. - 6, 28
McCanless, Kim - 11
McCoy, Clay W. - 30, 31, 46a
McKendre, W. - 33
McKenzie, Cindy L. - 33, 34, 35, 36, 53
Meagher, Robert L. - 5
Medina Hay-Roe, Mirian - 17
Michaud, J.P. - 47
Mitcham, E.J. - 62
Mizell, Russell F. - 25, 26, 51
Monteagudo, Erin J. - 59
Nation, J.L. - 8
Nesheim, O.N. - 25
Nguyen, R. - 46a
Nigg, H.N. - 30
Nuessly, Gregg - 39, 54
Oi, David H. - 41
Oi, F.M. - 11, 12, 14, 16, 20
Olsen, L. - 46
Osborne, L.S. - 42
Palmer, C.L. - 2
Peiffer, M. - 56
Peña, Jorge E. - 46a, 49
Prieto G., Heberto - 29
Punzo, Fred - 23
Puterka, G. - 35
Reitz, S. - 50
Remmen, Laura N. – 58 
Richman, Dina L. - 10
Ryser, Bruce - 2
Sanchez, E. - 52
Sasaki, T. - 36
Seal, Dak - 57
Shapiro, Jeffrey P. - 61
Shatters, R.G. - 33, 34, 36
Sinisterra, X.H. - 33, 34, 36
Sonke, D.J. - 60
Stansly, Phil - 46a, 52
Stevens, B.R. - 19
Stewart, J.M. - 3
Stuart, Robin J. - 30, 31
Teal, P.E.A. - 27
Terrell, M. - 46
Thoms, Ellen - 55
Tipping, Christopher - 62
Tucker, Cynthia L. - 20
Tumlinson, J.H. - 22
Urbaneja, A. - 52
Van Driesche, Roy - 48
Watson, C.A. - 41
Weathersbee, Allen A. - 38
Weissling, Thomas J. - 43, 44
Williams, D.F. – 41


Past Presidents
of the Florida Entomological Society

J. R. Watson
A. J. Rogers
E. W. Berger
L. Berner
H. S. Davis
W. C. Rhoades
F. M. O'Byrne
H. J. True
G. B. Merrill
G. W. Dekle
J. R. Watson
N. C. Hayslip
F. Stirling
J. R. King
G. B. Merrill
J. E. Brogdon
G. B. Merrill
L. A. Hetrick
J. S. Rogers
J. B. Oneil
J. Gray
H. A. Denmark
W. W. Yothers
L. C. Kuitert
E. D. Ball
W. B. Gresham
E. F. Grossman
A. G. Selhime
R. D. Dickey
W. G. Genung
C. F. Byers
R. M. Baranowski
A. N. Tissot
H. V. Weems, Jr.
P. Calhoun
C. S. Lofgren
(No record)
J. B. Taylor
W. L. Thompson
R. F. Brooks
W. L. Thompson
N. C. Leppla
R. L. Miller
E. C. Beck
W. V. King
W. L. Peters
J. H. Montgomery
A. C. White
H. Spencer
C. W. McCoy
H. Hixon
M. L. Wright, Jr.
K. E. Bragdon
D. H. Habeck
T. H. Hubbell
D. J. Shuster
A. H. Madden
J. L. Taylor
A. C. Brown
R. S. Patterson
H. K. Wallace
J. E. Eger, Jr.
M. R. Osburn
J. F. Price
E. G. Kelsheimer
J. Knapp
M. C. Van Horn
D. F. Williams
J. A. Mulrennan
J. E. Peña
W. G. Bruce
E. M. Thoms
J. W. Wilson
R. F. Mizell III
J. T. Griffiths
E.R. Mitchell/D. Hall
D.0. Wolfenbarger
J. E. Funderburk
F. G. Butcher
J. Sivinski
H. S. Mayeux
L. G. Peterson
M. Murphey, Jr.
P. D. Greany
I. H. Gilbert
J. L. Capinera
W. P. Hunter


2002 Florida Entomological Society Special Awards
47th Science & Engineering Fair of Florida

At the 47th Science and Engineering Fair of Florida, held in Lakeland April 10-12, 2002, a panel of judges viewed all projects entomological, and selected one representative each from the Junior and Senior Sections for awards from the FES. The FES will award these winners an overnight stay at the annual meeting, and an introduction to the members at the annual luncheon/banquet. Watch for their poster presentations at the meeting.

Junior Section

Jerry M. Kent (#J0110). The Effects of Different Natural Repellants on Adult Female Mosquitoes. Teacher: Mrs. Sharon Dyal, Burns Middle School, Brandon, Florida.

Judges: Everett Foreman, Jeffrey Shapiro, Genie White

Senior Section

Alyce S. NeJame (#S1314). Efficacy of Freeze Dried Boric Acid Sugar Baits on M. domestica. Teacher: Mr. Casey A. Carlisle, Santa Fe High School, Alachua, Florida.

Judges: Ulrich Bernier, Richard Mankin, Robert Meagher