5 A new species of Cligenes (Lygaeidae: Antillocorini) from Mexico and Central America. R. M. Baranowski, J. A. Slater,* and J. Brambila, Univ. of Florida, Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL, and . 
  A new species of Cligenes is described and illustrated. This antillocorine (Lygaeidae: Rhyparochrominae) has been collected in southern Mexico (states of Chiapas and Oaxaca), El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama. The genus Cligenes used to include several species besides Cligenes distinctus, its type species; all but the type species have been removed because of their lack of a defining and unique character, a prosternal groove, which is present in the new species of Cligenes.
6 Molecular evidence for sibling species in Ageniaspis, a parasitoid of the citrus leafminer. J. M. Alvarez and M. Hoy. Univ. of Florida, Department of Entomology & Nematology, Gainesville, FL.
  Taiwan and Australian populations of Ageniaspis citricola have been released in Florida. Mitochondrial DNA (between the COII gene and the tRNA-Leucine gene), and ribosomal DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacer 2 were cloned and sequenced from the two populations and from A. fuscicollis (an out-group). Mitochondrial segments were almost 100% identical for the three and therefore not informative. Ribosomal sequences successfully distinguished between the three and were used to construct a phylogenetic tree that showed the Australian population has diverged significantly from Taiwan.
7 Triaspis sp.: a potential biological control agent to manage pepper weevil in Florida. M. A. Toapanta, P. A. Stansly and D. J. Schuster. Univ. of Florida, Department of Entomology & Nematology, Gainesville, FL.
  The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, is an economic pest of peppers in Florida, which probably originated in southwestern Mexico. Foreign exploration in the Mexican state of Nayarit produced a predominance of the braconid wasp, Triaspis sp. Oviposition appears to occur in the egg or early first instar and emergence from the 3rd instar weevil host, a biology that would lend itself well to biological control of this pest.
8 A cladistic analysis of the genus Disonycha (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), species of the Caribbean basin. S. Moyá-Guzmán, Department of Biology, Univ. of Puerto Rico, Ponce, P. R.
  Disonycha, a widespread genus of leaf beetles includes important agricultural and wild plant pests. No previous species relationship hypotheses have been proposed for the genus. Taxonomic and phylogenetic studies are being conducted to revise and redescribe the species and to elucidate species relationships and character evolution. Adult and larval morphological characters are being studied. Character polarity is based on out-group comparison. Analyses will be performed using Hennig, 1986. A previous phylogeny with other genus suggest a monophyletic origin of Disonycha.
Pest Management, Sampling, and Biology 
9 Pepper weevil control in Florida with Actara 25 WG. J. S. Fergeson, J. P. Koenig, D.S. Lawson, and M.E. Green, Novartis Crop Protection, Vero Beach, FL.
  Actara 25WG (thiamethoxam, CGA-293343) is a new neonicotinoid insecticide under development by Novartis Crop Protection. In field trials in Florida, Actara at 50 and 70 g ai/ha applied at 7-day intervals provided highly effective control of the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii, in bell and jalapeno peppers. Control was superior to the current standard, VydateÒ , at 1120 g ai/ha. Registration is expected in the 3rd quarter of 2000.
10 A Novel insecticide for vegetable pest management programs. J. T. Andaloro, E. McCord, Jr., and D.W. Sherrod, DuPont Company, Newark, DE.
  Avaunt is a new insecticide from DuPont for use in vegetable and tree fruit crops. It represents a novel chemical class and unique mode of action. Avaunt is highly effective against a wide spectrum of lepidopteran, homopteran, and other specific insect pests. Avaunt is optimal for IPM programs because of its safety to workers, the environment, and non-target organisms, short REI and PHI, effectiveness at low use rates, and excellent crop protection.
11 Comparison of bioassay techniques for assessing the toxicity of spinosad to the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). J. E. Eger, Jr., Dow AgroSciences, Tampa, FL., J. M. Petti, Univ. of Florida, M. D. Remick, A. Duda and Sons, Belle Glade, FL. and G. L. Leibee, Univ. of Florida, Central Florida Research & Education Center, Sanford, FL.
  The objective of the research reported here was to compare results of adult bioassays of Liriomyza trifolii in glass vials and in clip cages on cowpea leaf surfaces and a larval bioassay. A culture from Belle Glade, FL was used for the trials. Mortality data was analyzed with Analysis of Regression using a log dose-probit model. R2 values and 95% Confidence Intervals were used to compare assay techniques. Results of these assays will be presented. 
12 Mortality of Rhagoletis species encountering pesticide-treated spheres -- Implications for management of the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). O. E. Liburd, L. Gut, L. Stelinski, M. McGuire, and J. Wise, Michigan State Univ., Department of Entomology, East Lansing, MI.
  Baited biodegradable pesticide-treated spheres (PTS) were evaluated for controlling Rhagoletis flies. An innovative dual-trapping device consisting of a sticky plexi-glass pane was used with PTS to document fly mortality. Significantly more Rhagoletis flies were captured on plexi-glass panes placed below PTS compared with panes under non pesticide-treated spheres. The mean feeding time on PTS was also significantly higher. The results suggest that PTS and plexi-glass panes can be used to document field mortality in Rhagoletis populations. 
13 Traps for monitoring insects. R. F. Mizell, III, Univ. of Florida, North Florida Research & Education Center-Monticello, Monticello, FL.
  Detection and monitoring of insects is basic to IPM programs. Entomologists have exploited vision, odor, sound and many passive devices such as pitfall traps for detection of insects and estimating population dynamics. Over a period of years I have developed many types of traps for a variety of purposes. Traps targeted to catch Curculionidae, Tabanidae, Hemiptera and Homoptera will be discussed along with some devices to confine insects on host plants for nutritional studies.
14 Accuracy of an electronic grain probe insect counter (EGPIC) system. N. D. Epsky and D. Shuman, USDA, ARS, CMAVE, Gainesville, FL.
  The EGPIC system is an automated detection system that includes a grain probe with an infrared beam sensor head and a box with the infrared beam generation/detection circuitry that electronically counts insects falling past the infrared beam. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure system accuracy, that is, that a single captured insect generated a single electronic count. Accuracy of the system was correlated with insect size and with electronic signal variation.
15 Acoustic detection of Diaprepes abbreviatus at naturally infested sites in Puerto Rico. R. Mankin, USDA, ARS, CMAVE, Gainesville, FL. (Slides)
  Acoustic recordings were obtained from underneath orange trees suspected of having Diaprepes infestations at coastal and mountainous sites in Puerto Rico. The loudest sounds were obtained from accelerometers attached to spikes that were pushed into the ground directly underneath the crown. The trees were pulled when possible and the roots were examined. In all cases where sounds were detected, Diaprepes larvae were observed feeding in the crown.
16 Assessment of Diaprepes abbreviatus oviposition and larval survival on different plant taxa. A. G. Hunsberger, J.E. Peña, R. Giblin-Davis, and L. Osborne. Univ. of Florida, Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL.
  New records from a survey carried in south Florida (1997-1998) demonstrated Diaprepes abbreviatus oviposition on Carica papaya (papaya), Sorghum sudanense (Sudan-Sorghum), Callophyllum brasiliense, Mursine floridana, Codos nucifera, Ilex cassineae, Bucida buceras, Conocarpus erectus cv. Sericeus, Manihot esculenta (cassava), Quercus virginiana, Persea americana (avacodo), Swietenia mahogani and Phoenix roebelini. Oviposition of D. abbreviatus was also investigated under caged conditions: for Manihot esculenta, C. papaya Xanthosoma sp (malanga), Conocarpus sp (silver buttonwood), S. sudanense, P. americana and satin leaf. More egg masses (1.2 to 4.75) were found on cassava, buttonwood and sudan Sorghum than on satin leaf, malanga, avocado and papaya (0 to 0.5). Despite of this, a relationship between leaf texture of different host plants (smooth, pubescent and intermediate) and number of egg masses deposited per plant could not be found. Larval survival was higher on green buttonwood, sorghum and cassava roots (4 to 7 larvae/plant) compared to lower survival on roots of lime (Citrus latifolia), malanga and dahoon holly (0 to 1.9 larvae per plant). During a study of larval behavior, preliminary results showed D. abbreviatus larvae chose silverbutton wood and lime roots over corn roots. 
17 Upland cotton resistance to cotton leaf crumple disease transmitted by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring. E. T. Natwick, C.G. Cook, R.L. Gilbertson, and Y.-S. Seo, Univ. of California Cooperative Extension, Holtville, CA.
  Cotton cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated in 1998 in California for resistance to the silverleaf whitefly-transmitted cotton leaf crumple disease, caused by cotton leaf crumple geminivirus (CLCV). Results showed differences in whitefly infestation levels and virus disease symptoms among cotton entries. The breeding-line C95-387 had a lower CLCV disease rating than other entries and no CLCV was detected by squash and dot blot hybridization with a general geminivirus DNA probe. Breeding-lines C95-383 abd C95-483 had lower CLCV disease ratings than other entries except C95-387 and CLCV was detected. Stoneville 474 had a higher CLCV disease rating than other entries and CLCV was detected.
18 Influence of slash and burn and slash and mulch practices on insect pests in inter-cropped sorghum and maize in Honduras. H. N. Pitre, Mississippi State Univ., Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State, MS.
  Fall armyworm (FAW) and neotropical cornstalk borer (NCSB) infestations were monitored in slash and burn (SB) and slash and mulch (SM) inter-cropped sorghum and maize on farms in southern Honduras. FAW infestations were lower in SM than in SB maize. NCSB infestations were greater in SB than in SM sorghum. Sorghum damage by NCSB was greater in SB than in SM fields. Crop residue destruction by burning may be of little value for control of FAW and SNCSB.
19 Development of Metamasius callizona (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on pineapple stems. J. Salas and J.H. Frank, FONAIAP, Barquisimeto, Lara, Venezuela.
  Metamasius callizona (Chevrolat) is a pest of pineapple and other bromeliads in Florida. Its development was studied under laboratory conditions (27 +/- 2° C and 58 +/- 1.35% RH) but in a microhabitat of 26 +/- 0.5° C and 82 +/- 6.67% RH). Five larval instars were recorded based on head capsule width. The duration in days was: 8.27 +/- 1.04 (egg); 5.00 +/- 0.72 (instar I); 4.51 +/- 0.73 (instar II); 4.43 +/- 0.67 (instar III); 5.67 +/- 0.62 (instar IV); 17.80 +/- 1.48 (instar V); 11.82 +/- 1.53 (pupa). Total life cycle from egg to adult was 56.5 days. The sex ratio was 1:1 (male:female). 
20 Evolution of sampling plans for Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae in central Florida lakes. R. J. Lobinske and A. Ali, Univ. of Florida, Central Florida Research & Education Center, Sanford, FL.
  Representative quantitative sampling of chironomid larvae in large central Florida lakes encounters a number of problems. Many chironomid species have highly aggregated distributions that make simple random sampling inefficient. Over the last twenty years, we have examined simple random (with variable numbers of samples), sequential, stratified and recently optimized stratified sampling plans. Information concerning midge larval distributions, affordable Global Positioning System receivers, and enhanced computer technology for modeling purposes have all improved the efficiency of our sampling efforts.
21 Temephos (5% Skeeter Abate° pellets) effects on target larval Chironomidae (Diptera) and on non-target invertebrates in Lake Monroe, central Florida. Ali, A., R. J. Lobinske and R. J. Leckel, Jr. Univ. of Florida, Central Florida Research & Education Center, Sanford, FL.
  Marked 50 x 50 m replicated plots in Lake Monroe, central Florida, were treated with 5% Skeeter Abate pellets at 0.2 and 0.4 kg AI / ha to reduce chironomid larvae. At 0.2 kg AI / ha, 96% reduction of Glyptotendipes paripes and 94 – 100% reductions of Chironomus crassicaudatus occurred for 12 days post-treatment. At 0.4 kg AI / ha, 83 – 100% reductions of G. paripes, and 86 – 100% reductions of C. crassicaudatus occurred during the 19 days post-treatment period. Other Chironomidae (primarily Tanypodinae) were not significantly affected by the treatments. Non-target invertebrates (Oligochaeta, Isopoda, Mollusca, Diaptomus spp., Ostractoda), and fish fry remained largely unaffected by the treatments.
SYMPOSIUM: Curculionids Of The Caribbean Region: Importance To Agriculture 
22 Agricultural Curculionidae: Diversity and distribution. C. W. O’Brien and P. W. Kovarik. Florida A & M Univ., University Center for Biological Control. Tallahassee, FL.
  The weevils (Curculionidae, sensu lato) are the largest known family of living organisms with more than 65,000 described species. They are extremely abundant in the West Indies. Many species are endemic to single islands, while others are more widespread. In addition, there are numerous agriculturally important species. A significant number of genera and species are undescribed and taxonomic relationships are poorly understood
24 Management of key curculionid pests of South Florida agriculture. J. E. Peña, L. Osborne, Univ. of Florida, Central Florida Research & Education Center, Apopka, FL., ** R. E. Duncan and A. Hunsberger, Univ. of Florida, Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL. 
  Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of ornamental and root crops in south Florida "marl" soils, but it is not considered a threat to citrus in this area. Studies initiated in 1997 assessed the seasonality, dispersion patterns, effect of microbial products, parasitism of native and exotic biocontrol agents. Major ovipositional peaks in ornamentals were observed from April through October during 1997, while peaks observed during 1998 were detected during January and March. Dispersion patterns of eggs of D. abbreviatus were determined for lime and silver buttonwood trees and on Elephant grass. An entomopathogenic nematode survey for microbial agents resulted in the discovery of Heterorhabidtis indica (HOM-1). Control of D. abbreviatus adults with Mycotrol (Beauveria bassiana) + FC435 oil showed significant mortality was obtained at 16 and 24 days after application of the product, while egg masses collected 30 days after treatment showed a 33-44% infection of B. bassiana. No native egg parasitoids of D. abbreviatus were found in the area. Several exotic egg parasitoids have been selected and imported as biological control agents of this and related pest species.
25 Status of root weevils in Jamaican agriculture and IPM strategies for Caribbean farmers. D. O. Clarke- Harris, CARDI, Kingston, Jamaica.
  Eight citrus root weevil species have been recorded in Jamaica. The three major species are Exophthalmus vittatus (l.), E. similis (Drury) and Pachnaeus citri Marshall causing estimated losses of US$4,982 per hectare. Programs to develop IPM strategies were initiated in the late 1980’s in the Caribbean. Biological control by egg parasitoids, entomogenous nematodes and fungi was emphasized and results showed great potential, however, implementation is limited. Chemical and cultural practices are widely employed. 
26 Humidity and temperature effects on development of Diaprepes abbreviatus and its implication for pest management. S. L. Lapointe, USDA-ARS, Orlando, FL.
  The root weevil Diaprepes abbeviatus was reared on artificial diet under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Lower thermal limits for neonate and late instar larvae were estimated. Development time from neonate to pupation was 125 +/- 3 days at 26° C. Time required for a single generation from oviposition to adult emergence at 26° C was estimated to be 154 days. Given adequate soil moisture, two generations per year of D. abbreviatus are possible in Florida.
27 Entomogenous nematodes as biological control agents of root weevil larvae. D. I. Shapiro, C. W. McCoy and L. W. Duncan. Univ. of Florida, Citrus Research & Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL.
  Entomopathogenic nematodes can be potent biocontrol agents of numerous soil-dwelling curculionid pests. Nematode efficacy may depend on a variety of factors including nematode species, rate of application and soil type. Effective rates against curculionids tend to be c.a. 250,000 infective juveniles per meter². Nematodes that are particularly effective against the sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus, include Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis indica. The effects of heavy versus light soils will be discussed.
SUBMITTED PAPERS: Biological Control 
33 Oligota minuta (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): biology and seasonal abundance. A. Bolques and R. F. Mizell, III. Univ. of Florida, North Florida Research & Education Center-Monticello, Monticello, FL.
  Overuse of insecticides often results in the outbreak of secondary pests. It has been assumed that these outbreaks result from the elimination of beneficials. Beneficials that regulate secondary pests are relatively unknown. These species may have excellent searching ability and biological characteristics that make them candidates for augmentation. Oligota minuta is a relatively unknown predatory staphylinid found feeding on spider mites in pecan. Biology, seasonal abundance, host and host plant range will be discussed.
34 Factors affecting Florida strawberry growers’ decisions to use Phytoseiulus persimilis for control of two-spotted spider mites. J. F. Price and G. C. DeCou, Univ. of Florida, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton, FL. 
  About 2,500 ha of fresh market strawberries are grown in Florida each year. The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) regularly is the key arthropod pest. Spider mites are managed with miticides on about 85% of the production and with Phytoseiulus persimilis on about 15%. Factor affecting growers’ decisions to choose biological control include: Compatibility of pesticides, costs of options, effectiveness of options, familiarity of practices, management abilities and esteem. 
35 Biological control of Aleurodicus pulvinatus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Nevis. M. T. K. Kairo, V. F. Lopez, CABI Bioscience, Trinidad and Tobago, G. V. Pollard, Food And Agriculture Organization, Bridgetown, Barbados and R. Hector, Department of Agriculture, Nevis Island.
  Aleurodicus pulvinatus is a serious problem on coconuts and other ornamentals in Nevis. The pest has a wide distribution including parts of the Caribbean, Central and South America. However, it appears to be a new introduction into Nevis. Surveys for natural enemies were carried out in Trinidad and Tobago to determine the natural enemy complex attacking Aleurodicus spp. This includes several species of Aphelinidae in two genera, Encarsiella and Encarsia; Metaphycus sp. (Encyridae) and several species of Nephaspis (Coccinellidae). Encarsiella sp. D was introduced into Nevis and this appears to have become established.
SUBMITTED PAPERS: Termite Biology 
37 Changes in the chemical composition of wood susceptible to Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) by fungi associated with this termite. M. G. Rojas and J. A. Morales-Ramos, USDA-ARS-SRRC Formosan Subterranean Termite Research Unit, New Orleans, LA. 
  Three species of fungi (Aspergilus nomius, A. fumigatus and Curvularia lunata) were found to be associated with the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, in New Orleans, LA. Pieces of healthy and infected (by each of these fungus species) wood of 3 species of trees (birch, maple and red gum) known to be susceptible to the FST were analyzed by HPLC and GC to determine changes in their composition and their role in the nutrition of this termite.
38 Preference of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), for wood species commercially available in New Orleans, Louisiana. J. A. Morales-Ramos and M. G. Rojas, USDA-ARS-SRCC Formosan Subterranean Research Unit, New Orleans, LA.
  A multiple choice test was designed to test the preference of Coptotermes formosanus Shirake on 24 species of wood. The test consisted of 20 termite nests with 2,000 workers and 400 soldiers. Blocks, 170 x 70 x 5 mm, of 24 wood species were exposed to each nest for 40 days. The blocks were placed around a circular device, 30 cm in diameter, connected vertically to a termite nest below. Four repetitions were completed. 
39 Foraging behavior and caste distribution of Incisitermes snyderi (Light) within natural colonies. B. Maharajh and R. H. Scheffrahn, Univ. of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
  Twelve histological dyes were evaluated for retention time and toxicity in the drywood termite Incisitermes snyderi (Light). Several showed good retention time and low toxicity. Neutral red was used to stain termites extracted from six infected logs. Stained termites were reintroduced into these logs. After one month, logs wee cut into 10 cm segments and dissected. Caste distribution and position of dyed termites were recorded. Dyed termites were found at least 180 cm away from the introduction point. 
SYMPOSIUM: Biological Control Of Pests In Ornamental Crops Of The Caribbean
Organizer: N. C. Leppla
40 Pink hibiscus mealybug and other mealybug pests of ornamentals. M. T. K. Kairo. CABI Bioscience, Caribbean & Latin American Centre, Trinidad and Tobago and G. V. Pollard, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bridgetown, Barbados.
  Primary mealybug pests of ornamentals, such as the pink hibiscus mealybug, citrus mealybug and longtailed mealybug; severity of damage to specific crops, natural enemies and their potential use in IPM and prospects for the future.
41 Silverleaf whitefly and related whitefly pests of ornamentals. C. L. McKenzie. USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Lab., Ft. Pierce, FL.
  Primary whitefly pests of ornamentals, such as the silverleaf whitefly, sweetpotato whitefly, giant whitefly and greenhouse whitefly; severity of damage to specific crops, natural enemies and their potential use in IPM and prospects for the future.
42 Prospects for biological control of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, in the Caribbean. F. W. Howard, Univ. of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale, FL and E. Abreu. Univ. of Puerto Rico, Isabela, PR.
  Primary mite pests of ornamentals, such as the coconut mite, two-spotted spider mite, broad mite and cyclamen mite; severity of damage to specific crops, natural enemies and their potential use in IPM and prospects for the future.
43 Western flower thrips and the other primary thrips on ornamentals. F. Diaz and C. Pereira, Univ. Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Departmento de Ciencias Biologicas, Lara, Venezuela.
  Primary thrips pests of ornamentals, such as the western flower thrips and melon thrips; severity of damage to specific crops, natural enemies and their potential use in IPM and prospects for the future.
44 Biology and control of the banana moth. S. Wainwright, Florikan ESA Corp. Coral Springs, FL and T. Weissling, Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
  Primary lepidopteran pests of ornamentals, such as the banana moth and close relatives that infest banana, bromeliads, sugar cane and palms.
45 Green peach aphid and other aphid pests of ornamentals. E. Abreu. Univ. of Puerto Rico, Crop Protection Department, Agricultural Experiment Station, Isabela, PR.
  Primary aphid pests of ornamentals, such as the green peach aphid and cotton aphid; severity of damage to specific crops, natural enemies and their potential use in IPM and prospects for the future
SYMPOSIUM: Protecting Historic Structures From Wood-Destroying Insects
Organizers: Nan-Yao Su and E. M. Thoms
46 Termites (Isoptera) of Puerto Rico. R. H. Scheffrahn, J. A. Chase, S. C. Jones, J. R. Mangold J. de la Rosa and N.-Y. Su, Univ. of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale Research & Education Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
  A survey of the termite fauna of Puerto Rico begun in 1992 has yielded 18 species in 11 genera and 3 families. The family Kalotermitidae is represented by 11 species, including 2 new Cryptotermes spp. and one new Incisitermes sp. The Rhinotermitidae contain the damaging Heterotermes complex and the recently discovered pest, Coptotermes havilandi. Among the higher termites (Termitidae) are found two arborial Nasutitermes spp., two small ground nesting nasutes, and one soldierless termite.
SYMPOSIUM: Sweetpotato Insect Management
Organizers: K. A. Sorensen and D. Seal
53 Sweetpotato importance in the USA and the World. K. A. Sorensen, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC.
  Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas ranks 7th in world crop statistics behind wheat, rice, maize, potato, barley and cassava. The origin is in the region between Yucatan Peninsula and the Orinoco River and sweetpotato is quite adaptable to various conditions. Sweetpotato is high in protein quality and contains beta carotene. Leaves and stem tips and the roots are consumed. Many insects attack the plant and root with the sweetpotato weevil the major pest species. Areas of production include China, Japan, Taiwan, SE Asia, Africa, USA etc. Slips are planted and 100 days later roots are harvested, stored or consumed fresh or processed. Breeding, micropropagation, IPM and marketing are critical areas.
54 Biology and management of sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius. D. R. Seal. Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Tropical Research & Educational Center, Homestead, FL.
  Sweetpotato weevil (SPW) is the major pest of sweetpotato in south Florida. It occurs all around the year. SPW occurs in all plant parts of sweetpotato. However, 70% of the total population occurs in the storage roots. Lorsban provided long time control of sweetpotato weevil in the present study. Also, satisfactory control of SPW was achieved by using Pencap, Thiodan and Pounce. 
55 Grubs, Phyllophaga species, and their management. A. Hammond, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA. 
  White grubs, have been rated the number 1 soil pest in Louisiana by our growers. Pest management research consists of chemical and biological field trials to evaluate the efficacy of new products for possible replacement of the organo-phosphate chemicals. During the 1998 season no statistical differences in early season damage by grubs was evident among treatments. With late season damage, there were significant differences, and Admire had the lowest damage rating when compared to the standards, Mocap and Lorsban. Biological control agents have also been evaluated and some products appear to have potential for control of grubs and banded cucumber beetle larvae. A multi-state trapping plan for survey of Phyllophaga species, using synthetic sex attractants will be discussed.
57 Other soil insects and vector management. K. A. Sorensen. North Carolina State Univ., Department of Entomology, Raleigh, NC.
  Over 50 insect species have been reported on sweetpotato. Soil insects include wireworms, white grubs, weevil, flea beetles, Diabrotica species, white- fringed beetle and others. Foliar pests include flea beetles, leafhoppers, hornworms, earworms, armyworms, loopers, tortoise beetles and others. Insect vectors of plant disease include aphids, leafhoppers, and whiteflies. Identification, detection, control and management of these "other" pests including vectors demands understanding and integration into production systems.
58 Lepidopterous foliar feeders and their management. A. Hammond, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA.
  Outbreaks of foliage feeding Lepidoptera were severe in sweetpotato during 1998. Several new, environmental friendly, insecticides were effective in controlling beet armyworm. Both Confirm and SpinTor significantly reduced the numbers of beet armyworms in comparison to the control plots at both the 3rd and 8th day, post-treatment damage ratings. These new chemicals appear to fit well into the sweetpotato IPM system.
59 Towards the development of an IPM program for the sweetpotato weevil in Puerto Rico. I. Cabrera, C. Cruz and A. Pantoja, Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, PR. 
  Sweetpotatoes are an important crop in Puerto Rico with an estimated value of $1.1 millions. The main constraint to sweetpotato production is the damage caused by the sweetpotato weevil Cylas fornicarius. The larvae of C. fornicarius reduce the number and quality of marketable roots. Research on C. fornicarius management on Puerto Rico have contemplated the use of resistant varieties and better understanding of the insect biology and factor affecting its development. Cultivars commonly used in Puerto Rico were evaluated for C. fornicarius larval damage. Two cultivars were found to have low preference index. The cultivars Regal and WRAS - 27 consistently recorded the lowest number of larvae/root. The biology an development of C. fornicarius under Puerto Rico conditions will be discussed.
SUBMITTED PAPERS: Biology, Taxonomy/Systematics, Biological Control
En Español - Spanish Speaking section 
60 Attraction of males by female pink hibiscus mealybug. M. Serrano and S. Lapointe. USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticulture Research Laboratory, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.
  Virgin female Maconellicoccus hirsutus were used in laboratory and field experiments totest their ability to attract flying males. Encapsulated virgins attracted one or two males in 24 hours in the laboratory. At three field sits on St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands) females attracted up to 90 males per sticky trap in 72 hours. Sticky traps with 20 females will be used for field population monitoring until a synthetic pheromone is obtained.
66 Estado actual del conocimiento de las cucarachas (Dictyoptera: Blattaria) de Puerto Rico. E. Gutierrez, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba.
  Se brinda una breve resena historica de los estudios taxonomicos realizados sobre las cucarachas de Puerto Rico. A partir de la revision bibliografica, colectas y el estudio de colecciones taxonomicas, se listan 58 especies de cucarachas provenientes de dicha isla. El endemismo es tratado. Basado en la informacion de ejemplares depositados en colecciones aun por nombrar, se plantea la 

estrategia a seguir en futuras colectas con el fin de continuar el inventario de especies.

67 Quantitative biodiversity of Cuban insects, J. A. Genaro, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba.
  In Cuba, the highest species abundance and diversity is present in invertebrates. In this paper I provided the numbers of Cuban insect species obtained from the publications listing or cataloguing taxa. These numbers have been updated through further studies on new records or new species, specialist's personal communication, or those species that are included in collections but are not still of public knowledge. In Cuba, there were 8,311 species of insects belonging to 29 orders. The predominating insects regarding species number were the beetles, the butterflies, the Hymenoptera and the flies, all of them corresponding to their number at world level. 
68 Historical bio-geography and character evolution in the taxon "Macromischa "(Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Leptothorax). J. L. Fontenla, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba.
  "Macromischa" is a natural taxon of bizarre ants, which involves arboreal and limestone-dweller species of Antillean Leptothorax. The group has irradiated mainly in Cuba. Their phylogenetic relationships are congruent with the Garland model of Antillean paleogeographic evolution, which predicts a pattern of more derived species in Occidental Cuba. Puerto Rico species, L. isabellae, can be considered an evolutionary relict. Morphological trends lead to increasing in size and slenderness of body and appendages, especially in the most derived groups, versicolor and porphyritis. Shifts in nesting behaviour: terricolous®  

arboreal® limestone are considered key features in the speciation process.

DSP1 Valeris, a new genus of antillocorine lygaeids from Trinidad, Brazil and Venezuela. R. M. Baranowski,  J. A. Slater*, and  J. Brambila, Univ. of Florida, Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL, and Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut. 
  A new lygaeid genus, Valeris  is proposed and described based on the species V. subcavicola (Rhyparochrominae: Antillocorini). This species was originally placed in the genus Cligenes, which is characterized by a prosternal groove, a character that is not present in V. subcavicola. It has been collected in caves of Trinidad, Brazil and Venezuela feeding on seeds in bat guano.
DSP2 Laboratory and field infestation studies on mamey sapote to determine its host status in relation to the Caribbean fruit fly. (Diptera: Tephritidae). W. P. Gould, USDA-ARS, Miami, FL. 
  A two-year study of the host status of mamey sapote to the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, was conducted including field and laboratory tests. Over 646 fruits of 'Magaña', 'Pantin', ‘Pace’, and 'Maya' mamey sapote (>410 kg) were exposed to Caribbean fruit flies in the laboratory or under forced or natural field conditions. No fruit fly larvae were recovered from any fruits collected in the field or caged with flies in the field. 
DSP3 Establishment of Cybocephalus binotatus Grouvelle and Coccobius fulvus (Compere & Annecke) for suppression of cycad scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in South Florida. R. M. Baranowski and H. B. Glenn, Univ. of Florida, Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL.
  Two biocontrol agents were introduced from Thailand to Florida for suppression of cycad scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui. Cybocephalus binotatus, a  

predaceous beetle, and Coccobius fulvus, a parasitic wasp, were released at over 40 sites in south Florida. Beetles and parasitoids are both established and have been found more than three miles from release sites. Scale populations at release sites have been virtually eliminated due to the activity of these agents. The biology of the scale, parasite, and predator are discussed.

DSP4 Progress and prospects for biological control of Tropical Soda Apple in the USA. J. C. Medal, D. Gandoffo, J. Cuda and D. Subbrink, Univ. of Florida, Department of Entomology & Nematology, Gainesville, FL.
  Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Solanaceae) is a perennial weed, native to south America, that has been spsreading throughout Florida at an alarming rate during the 1990’s. Currently, the infested area is estimated at more than a half million acres. Host specific studies with three leaf feeding chrysomelids (Eratiana boliviana, Matriona elatior and Platyphora sp.), started in December, 1996, indicated a great potential for biocontrol of tropical soda apple.
DSP5 The IR-4 Project, a national agricultural program to clear pest control agents for minor crops in the U.S. K. S. Samoil, IR-4 Project, Rutgers Univ., North Brunswick, NJ.
  IR-4 is a federally funded program for the development of data that is used to obtain registrations for crop protection chemicals and biopesticides on minor food crops when the economic incentives preclude private sector investment. Approximately 130 studies with 600 field trials are scheduled annually, including studies on tropical crops in Puerto Rico, southern Florida and Hawaii. Proposed tropical crop subgroups will increase the number of registrations that may result from data developed by IR-4.
DSP6 The Lygaeidae of the West Indies. R. M. Baranowski, Univ. of Florida, Tropical Research & Education Center, Homestead, FL and J. A. Slater, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CN. 
  Island distribution, endemism and zoogeography will be presented.
DSP7 Improved trapping of pickleworm and insecticide bioassay. K. A. Sorensen, T. P. Lynch, North Carolina State Univ., Department of Entomology, Raleigh, NC, and D. M. Jackson, USDA-ARS, Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC.
  The pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll), is one of the major pests of cucurbit  

crops in the southeastern US. Mate-locating behavior of male pickleworm moths was studied to improve the trapping system. The trapping efficiency of a multi-cone wire trap and modified wire-cone trap, and a comparison of four trap types to retain moths was conducted. Insecticide bioassays were conducted over three years to determine the level of effectiveness and residual activity. 

DSP8 Diet-reared vs. host-reared parasitoids: influence of host kairomones on host selection. J. E. Carpenter, USDA-ARS, Insect Biology and Population Management Research Laboratory, Tifton, GA and P. D. Greany, USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL.
  Host acceptance and preference of an Ichneumonid pupal ectoparasitoid, Diapetimorpha introita, were studied in the laboratory and the field to determine the influence of pre- and post imaginal exposure to host kairomones. Wasps reared on an artificial diet were reared in the absence of host kairomones, allowing for the production of naïve female wasps, and thus providing the opportunity to isolate the influence of post imaginal exposure to host kairomones.
DSP9 Growth, development and reproduction of Podisus maculiventris reared on an insect-free artificial medium. P. D. Greany, H. Dillon, I. Baez, J. Shapiro, S. O’Keefe and J. L. Nation, USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural & Veterinary Entomology. Gainesville, FL.
  The generalist predator Podisus maculiventris (spined soldier bug) was reared from egg to adult on an insect-free, meat-based diet. Growth rates approximated growth when fed Galleria mellonella, but the size of diet-reared adults was slightly smaller and their fecundity was only about 50% that of prey-reared females. Internal development of the ovaries and hemolymph vitellogenin levels of diet-reared females was slower than for prey-reared females. Biochemical efforts are being made to acquire fecundity-stimulating factors from Galleria larvae.
DSP10 Parasitoids of Lepidopterous pests of plantain (Musa AAB), sub-group plantain, cv. Harton, in South Maracaibo Lake Basin, Venezuela. O. Dominguez-Gil, Universidad del Zulia. Facultad de Agronomia, Unidad Técnica Fitosanitaria. Maracaibo, Venezuela. 
  Twelve intrafamily taxas of parasitoids, emerged from lepidopterous larvae, were collected from the plantain plants of twenty plantations in south Maracaibo Lake Basin, Venezuela over a four year period (1994-1997). Two eulophids, Horismenus spp., attacked Opsiphanes tamarindis larvae. Two chalcids, Brachymeria spp., emerged from Apatelodes sp. and Antichloris viridis pupae. Four other chalcids, Conura spp. Parasitized pupae of O. tamarindis and Oiketius kirbiy. A braconid, Digonognostza sp., emerged exclusively from O. kirbiy. Two species of Diptera, a tachinid, Belbosia sp. and a sarcophagidae, were recovered from Automeris incarnata pupae and Podalia sp. larvae, respectively. The most common parasitoids that emerged from A. viridis and Apatelodes sp. larvae were Brachymeria spp. Belbosia sp. Was the most prevalent parasitoid of A. incarnata.
DSP11 Termite education program in Louisiana. X. P. Hu, D. Ring, A. Morgan and J. Polizzi, LSU Agricultural Center, Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Baton Rouge, LA. 
  The LSU Agricultural Center provides an education program for management of termites to pest control operators at the termite training school and the summer pest control institutes. An education program for the public is being developed.
DSP12 Effectiveness of various insecticides on the development stages of silverleaf whiteflies. C. M. Sabines, D. R. Seal and R. T. McMillan, Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL.
In laboratory bioassays Admire and EXP80667A, at higher rates used in the present study, significantly controlled silverleaf whitefly adults for two weeks. Admire at 1.0 and 10.0 ppm, EXP80667A at 6.25 and 100.0 ppm and CGA293343 at 10.0 ppm killed treated eggs of various stages. None of the insecticides caused pupal mortality. In the field study, the effectiveness of Admire increased after the second application. Provado and EXP80667A controlled silverleaf whitefly populations for two to four weeks.
DSP13 Effect of various temperatures on the biology of Catolaccus hunteri, a potential parasitoid of pepper weevil. T. Cabrera and D. R. Seal, Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL.
  Various biological parameters of Catolaccus hunteri were studied in the laboratory using three constant temperature regimes (20º, 25º, and 30º C). Females laid eggs faster at 25º C than any other temperature regimes. Adult longevity was longer at 20º C than at other temperatures. Larval development was shorter at 30º C than at 20º or 25º C.
DSP14 Action thresholds for applying insect growth regulators for control of the silverleaf whitefly and irregular ripening on tomato. D. J. Schuster, Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton, FL.
  Action thresholds based upon density of silverleaf whitefly nymphs were evaluated in small plot experiments for timing applications of buprofezin and pyriproxyfen for whitefly control and subsequent development of irregular ripening on tomato. The relationship between nymphal densities as estimated by scouts in the field using a hand lens and by assistants in the laboratory using dissecting microscopes was also investigated.
7/9/99 Lance Peterson,  Richard Mankin